The History of The Hershey Company


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Hershey Chocolate Company)

This article is about the chocolate manufacturer. For the ice cream company also known as Hershey's, see Hershey Creamery Company. For other uses, see Hershey's.

It has been suggested that Krave Jerky be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2015.

It has been suggested that Bar None (chocolate bar) be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2015.

The Hershey Company



Hershey Factory.jpg

The original Hershey's chocolate factory, from 1976



Traded as


S&P 500 Component




Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States (February 9, 1894; 121 years ago)[1]


Milton S. Hershey


Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States

Area served


Key people

John Bilbrey (President and CEO)


List of products manufactured by The Hershey Company


Increase US$7.146 billion [2] (2013)

Operating income

Increase US$905 million (2010)

Net income

Increase US$820 million[2] (2013)

Total assets

Increase US$5.357488 billion (2013) [3]

Increase US$4.754839 billion (2012) [3]

Total equity

Increase US$1.616 billion[2] (2013)


Hershey Trust Company

Number of employees

 14,800[2] (2013)




The Hershey Company, known until April 2005 as the Hershey Foods Corporation[4] and commonly called Hershey's, is the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America and increasingly elsewhere throughout the world.[5] Its headquarters are in Hershey, Pennsylvania, which is also home to Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company. Hershey's products are sold in over sixty countries worldwide.[5][6] In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation.

Hershey is one of the oldest chocolate companies in the United States, and an American icon for its chocolate bar. It is one of a group of companies established by Milton Hershey. Other companies include Hershey Trust Company, and Hershey Entertainment and Resorts Company, which runs Hersheypark, an amusement park, the Hershey Bears minor professional hockey team, Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center.

Contents  [hide]

1 History

2 Milton Hershey School (MHS) 2.1 Manufacturing plants

2.2 Other sales and acquisitions

3 Product recalls

4 Criticism 4.1 Cocoa Purchase

4.2 Use of foreign student labor

4.3 Lawsuit over Importation of British Chocolate

5 See also

6 References

7 External links



After completing an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton Hershey founded a shop in Philadelphia, which failed six years later.[7] After trying unsuccessfully to manufacture in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company, whose use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful.[7] In 1900, after seeing chocolate-making machines for the first time, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000[7] (equal to $28,348,000 today) and began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing. He stated to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing."


Hershey's Cocoa ad from 1918.

In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown, Derry Church, Pennsylvania, which later came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania.[7] The town was an inexpensive place for the workers and their families to live. Milton treated the people well and provided leisure activities to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved popular, and the company grew rapidly.


Milton built a milk-processing plant in the year 1896, so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate . In 1899, three years later, he developed the Hershey process which is less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods.

Hershey Store located in the Falls Avenue Entertainment Complex in Niagara Falls, Canada

Hershey's Times Square Store, Times Square, New York City (2008)

Hershey's Syrup, circa 1950s

In 1907, Hershey introduced a new , small flat-bottomed conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss". Initially they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of foil, and the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product.[7] Now, 80 million of the  are produced each day. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in chocolate, in 1925, Hershey's Syrup in 1926, semi-sweet dark chocolate chips in 1928, and the Krackel bar containing crisped rice in 1938.


Harry Burnett Reese worked at Hershey, beginning in 1917, as a dairyman for the Hershey Farms. In 1921 he went to work in the factory. By 1925, he had developed an assortment of  which he was able to sell to department stores in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, advertised as "made in Hershey." In 1926 he built his own factory and then in 1941 with the wartime rationing of sugar, Reese focused all of his production resources on his own confectionery specialty, the peanut butter cup, which required less sugar than most other confections of the time. In 1956, Reese died, leaving the company to his six sons. In June 1963, Hershey Chocolate Corporation acquired Reese's company for $23.3 million at a time when Reese's sales were $14 million annually.[8]


Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a CIO-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant. By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had successfully organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first President of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers, and Grain Millers Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce.


Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-term president of Hershey's, William F.R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's (for Mars and Murrie). Murrie had 20 percent interest in the confection. The new confection would use Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948 Mars bought out Murrie's interest and would become one of Hershey's primary competitors.[9]


In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes.[10] Currently, the Food and Drug

Administration does not allow a product to be called "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients.[11][12]

In December 2007, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind that was used for illegal street drugs.[13]

In September 2008, MSNBC reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier. According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, approximately half of consumers preferred the new versions. As the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate " and "chocolaty."[14]


In 1988, Hershey's acquired the rights to manufacture and distribute many Cadbury-branded products in the United States (except gum and mints, which are part of Mondelēz International). In 2015, they sued a British importer to halt imports of British Cadbury chocolate, angering consumers.[15][16]

Krave Jerky was founded by Jon Sebastiani in 2009 when he was training for a marathon and looking for a healthy source of energy.[17] The company was purchased by The Hershey Company in 2015.[18]

Milton Hershey School (MHS)[]

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2013)


Main article: Milton Hershey School

Unable to have children of his own, Milton S. Hershey founded the Milton Hershey School in 1909 for orphans. In 1918, Milton S. Hershey and his wife, Catherine Hershey, donated all of their considerable wealth, of around 60 million dollars, to the boarding school upon Catherine Hershey's death. The Hershey Trust Company is now the largest shareholder and beneficiary to the School. Before his death, Milton Hershey ensured the school would live on by donating 30% of all future Hershey profits to the school. Due to this generous donation by America's largest chocolate company, MHS now has over 7 billion dollars in assets, making it one of the richest schools in the world. Today, the Milton Hershey School provides free education, health care, counseling and a friendly home to 2000 orphans in financial need. The school's programs include sports, arts, religious studies, sciences, math, language and many other subjects. School colors are gold and brown. Students must wear a uniform to class provided to them by the School to encourage equality. Their admissions is primarily based on age and financial need for the orphans. The school also provides "House Parents", which are hired couples, paid to take care of and nurture the students. The school's "fellowship" project provides students with Hershey employee visits to build long lasting relationships and provide career counseling. Additionally, the school is located in Hershey, Pennsylvania, a city created by Milton Hershey himself. The city offers security, a church, a post office and other services for the students. Many of its designs resemble Hershey chocolate products, such as the Hershey Kisses light posts. Most notably perhaps is the fact that Mr. Milton Hershey prohibited The Hershey Company from using the School as an advertisement or marketing strategy. The school's primary goal is to provide young orphans with the skills necessary to support themselves and their families in the future.


Manufacturing plants[]

The first plant outside Hershey, Pennsylvania, opened on June 15, 1963 in Smiths Falls, Ontario, Canada, and the third opened on May 22, 1965 in Oakdale, California.[19] In February and April 2007 Hershey's announced that their Smiths Falls[20][21] and Oakdale[22][23] plants would close in 2008, being replaced in part by a new facility in Monterrey, Mexico. The Oakdale factory closed on February 1, 2008.[24] Hershey chocolate factory in São Roque, Brazil was opened in August 2002.


Hershey also has plants in Stuarts Draft, Virginia; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Hazleton, Pennsylvania; Memphis, Tennessee; Robinson, Illinois and Guadalajara, Mexico.


Visitors to Hershey, Pennsylvania, can experience Hershey's Chocolate World visitors center and its simulated tour ride. Public tours were once operated in the Pennsylvania and California factories, which ended in Pennsylvania in 1973 as soon as Hershey's Chocolate World opened,[25] and later in California following the September 11, 2001 attacks, due to security concerns.[23]


On September 18, 2012, Hershey opened a new and expanded West Hershey plant. The plant was completed at a budget of $300 million.[26]


Other sales and acquisitions[]

In 1969, Hershey received a license from Rowntree's to manufacture and market Kit Kat and Rolo in the United States. As of September 2013, Hershey continued to make and market these brands in the U.S. under license from Nestlé, owners of the Rowntree brand.

In 1977, Hershey acquired Y&S , founded in 1845, and became the makers of Twizzlers licorice . In 1986, Hershey's began a brief foray into cough drops when it acquired the Luden's cough drops brand. But by 2001, the brand had been sold to Pharmacia (now part of Pfizer),[27] and Luden's eventually became a product of Prestige Brands.[28] Hershey's kept Luden's 5th Avenue bar. In 1988, Hershey's acquired the rights to manufacture and distribute many Cadbury-branded products in the United States (except gum and mints, which are part of Mondelēz International). In 1996, Hershey purchased the American operations of the Leaf Company from Huhtamäki.


In 1999, the Hershey Pasta Group was divested to several equity partners to form the New World Pasta company (now part of Ebro Foods).


On July 25, 2002 it became public knowledge that the Hershey Trust Company was seeking to sell its controlling interest in the Hershey Foods Corporation. The value of Hershey stock skyrocketed 25% with over 19 million shares trading that day. But over the following 55 days, widespread press coverage, as well as pressure from Pennsylvania Attorney General Mike Fisher, the community of Hershey, and Dauphin County Orphans' Court Senior Judge Warren G. Morgan, led to the sale being abandoned. The seven Hershey trustees who voted to sell Hershey Foods on September 17, 2002, for US$12.5 billion to the William Wrigley Jr. Company (now part of Mars Incorporated) were removed by Attorney General Fisher and Judge Morgan.[29] Ten of the 17 trustees were forced to resign and four new members who lived locally were appointed. The former Pennsylvania Attorney General, LeRoy S. Zimmerman, became the new chairman of the reconstituted Milton Hershey School Trustees. Mr. Zimmerman has publicly committed to having the Milton Hershey School Trust always retain its interest in The Hershey Company. If Hershey was to be sold, the rights to make and market Kit Kat and Rolo products in the U.S. would have reverted to Nestlé.


In December 2004, Hershey acquired the Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corp. from The Shansby Group.[30]


In July 2005, Hershey acquired the Berkeley, California based boutique chocolate-maker Scharffen Berger.[31] In November 2005, Hershey acquired Joseph Schmidt Confections, the San Francisco-based chocolatier, and a year later, in November 2006, Hershey acquired Dagoba Organic Chocolate, a boutique chocolate maker based in Ashland, Oregon.


In December 2011, Hershey reached an agreement to acquire Brookside Foods Ltd., a privately held confectionery company based in Abbotsford, British Columbia.[32]


In 2015, Hershey announced that they had acquired Krave Jerky, marking the companies first foray outside of the confectionery market.[18]


Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, due to their wide network of distribution.[33] They have three mega distribution centers, with modern technology and labor management systems.[34]


Product recalls[]

In November 2006, the Smiths Falls production plant in Ontario, Canada temporarily shut down and several products were voluntarily recalled after concerns over salmonella contamination possibly found in soy lecithin within their production line. It is believed that most of the products involved in the recall never made it to the retail level.[35][36]

In July 1998, a number of 100 g (3.5 oz) milk chocolate bars being sold for fund raising events were recalled because they may have contained traces of almonds not listed in the ingredients.[37]



Cocoa Purchase[]

Hershey has been criticized for not having programs to ensure sustainable and ethical cocoa purchase, lagging behind its competitors in fair trade measures.[38] Regarding Hershey's corporate practices, the Global Exchange report comments that:

Hershey has no policies in place to purchase cocoa that has been produced without the use of labor exploitation, and the company has consistently refused to provide public information about its cocoa sources. Additionally, Hershey has made no move to shift to third-party certification for the cocoa that it sources from West Africa. No information is available from Hershey about how the money it has invested in various programs in West Africa has actually impacted reductions in forced, trafficked, and child labor among the suppliers of its cocoa. Finally, Hershey's efforts to further cut costs in its cocoa production has led to a reduction in good jobs in the United States.[39]


The "The Raise the Bar, Hershey! Campaign" was launched in September 2010 by Global Exchange, Green America. the Oasis Trust, and the International Labor Rights Forum. The purpose of the Raise the Bar Campaign is to pressure Hershey to commit “to take immediate action to eliminate forced and child labor … from Hershey’s cocoa supply”; “to sourcing 100% Fair Trade Certified™ cocoa beans by 2012 for at least one of its top five selling chocolate bars … making at least one additional top five selling bar 100% Fair Trade Certified™ every two years thereafter”; and that “the majority of Hershey’s cocoa across all products will be Fair Trade Certified™ by 2022.“ Pressure was particularly directed at Whole Foods Market, which announced on October 3, 2012 that it would cease carrying Hershey's Scharffen Berger line.[40] The Campaign stated that "Whole Foods’ decision follows more than 40 natural food retailers and coops publicly expressing concern about carrying Scharffen Berger and Dagoba products as a consequence of the giant chocolate maker’s refusal to address child labor in its supply chain."[40] The same day, Hershey's announced that "it will source 100 percent certified cocoa for its global chocolate product lines by 2020 and accelerate its programs to help eliminate child labor in the cocoa regions of West Africa."[41]


Use of foreign student labor[]


In August 2011, the main distribution center for Hershey  was subjected to a strike by about 400[42] young foreign workers brought to the United States under the J1 "cultural exchange" visa program. The center in Palmyra, Pennsylvania, was run for Hershey by Exel based in Ohio.[43] Exel in turn subcontracted the staffing of the center to another firm SHS OnSite Solutions based in Lemoyne, Pennsylvania. The students were recruited by yet another organization called the Council on Educational Travel (CETUSA).[44]


To the students, CETUSA promised:

You will gain valuable work and life experience, expand your resume, improve your English, have opportunity to travel in the U.S., make great memories and form lasting relationships. No matter where you end up in the U.S., your Work and Travel Program is sure to be a summer you will never forget![44]


The students paid CETUSA up to $6,000 to participate in the program. The students came from countries such as Costa Rica, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, and Romania.[45] One said, "I spent some of the worst moments of my life during that exchange."[46]


In February 2012, press reports indicated that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration fined Exel $283,000. The company failed to report 42 serious injuries in the period from 2008 to 2011. The agency found that Exel had deliberately failed to meet reporting requirements. Hershey spokesmen pointed out the Hershey Corporation was not cited, just the company they hired to run its operations in the Hershey-owned facility.[47]


In November 2012, the federal government fined the three contractors $143,000 and charged them for unpaid wages, an amount totaling $356,000. The Hershey company refused to answer questions concerning the settlement, only referring reporters to the contractors who were largely unavailable.[48]


Lawsuit over Importation of British Chocolate[]


Hershey's filed a lawsuit against Let's Buy British Imports, and Posh Nosh Imports because of the aforementioned companies importation of Nestlé's Yorkie, and Toffee Crisp, for Hershey's claim of alleged resemblance to York Peppermint Patties and Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, respectively; despite the fact that Hershey's and Nestlé's respective products are different types. Hershey also claimed that import of original British Rolo by Nestlé violated its licensed rights to the Rolo brand in the US, and sought the end of importation of Rolo into the US.


Hershey's also sought the halting of the importation of British, South African, Canadian, Australian, New Zealander, and all other Cadbury brand chocolate other than Hershey's licensed chocolate product produced in the US and marketed under the Cadbury brand name. Hershey's claimed that the importers, LBB Importers and Posh Nosh, were infringing on their rights to the Cadbury brand name in the US due to their licensing agreement with Cadbury, a division of Mondelez.


In addition, Hershey's claimed that the two importers needed to stop importing Mars's Maltesers malted milk balls because Hershey's makes their own malted milk balls under the Maltesers name. Hershey's itself has been sued by Mars for violating Mars' trademark and rights to Maltesers, Mars has said that Hershey's has copied Maltesers brand, packaging, and products; that lawsuit has not settled as of 16 February 2015.


In January 2015, Hershey's lawsuit against Let's Buy British Imports and Posh Nosh Imports was dropped, and the two importers agreed to stop importing non-licensed original Cadbury chocolate, Nestlé's Yorkie chocolate and Toffee Crisp, and Maltesers. This decision was immediately met with immense backlash and controversy against Hershey. Many people said that they would no longer purchase Hershey's products, as many believe that the taste of british chocolate such as Cadburys etc was much superior to that of american chocolate such as Hershey's in particular and many called for a boycott of Hershey's products. A petition protesting Hershey's lawsuit has gained over 35,000 signatures as of 16 February 2015. An owner of a 7/11 in a Boston neighborhood with heavy Irish immigrant presence said that he would stop carrying Hershey products in his store, as have other stores across the country. Some people purchased hundreds of the mentioned products with news of the lawsuit. The lawsuit does not prevent other importers of the chocolates from importing them as they were not mentioned in the lawsuit.


See also[]

Portal icon Companies portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hershey Company.

List of products manufactured by The Hershey Company

List of food companies

Pennsylvania chocolate workers' strike, 1937



Brenner, Joël Glenn (2000). The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey & Mars. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-0457-5.


1. ^ Retrieved June 30, 2006.

2.^  to: a b c d "2013 Form 10-K, The Hershey Company". United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

3.^  to: a b "HERSHEY CO 2013 Annual Report Form (10-K)" (XBRL). United States Securities and Exchange Commission. February 21, 2014.

4. ^ Retrieved June 30, 2006.

5.^  to: a b Retrieved June 30, 2006.

6. ^ "The Hershey Company: NYSE:HSY quotes & news - Google Finance". Google. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

7.^  to: a b c d e Reference For Retrieved June 30, 2006.

8. ^ Reese, Andrew (2008). REESE'S Peanut Butter Cups: The Untold Story. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-48707-3.

9. ^ "Murrie, William F.R.; 1873–1950", Cf section "The Story of M & Ms"

10. ^ Bragg, Lynn (2007). "Letter to CMA from President (pdf)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2007.

11. ^ "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2007.

12. ^ "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved June 9, 2007.

13. ^ Porter, Jill (December 5, 2007). "Hershey's int/drug: Kisses, disses". Philadelphia City News.

14. ^ Coffey, Laura (September 19, 2008). "Chocoholics sour on new Hershey's formula". MSNBC. Retrieved June 10, 2009.

15. ^ Rooney, Ben (January 23, 2015). "Hershey Lawsuit Angers Fans of British Chocolate in U.S.". CNN Money.

16. ^ Baker, Andrew (January 26, 2015). "Why is Hershey’s Afraid of British Chocolate?". The Telegraph.

17. ^

18.^  to: a b

19. ^ Hershey' Retrieved March 10, 2008.[dead link]

20. ^ "Smiths Falls will fight to keep Hershey plant open, mayor vows". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 16, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

21. ^ "Hershey confirms Smiths Falls plant will close". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 22, 2007. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

22. ^ "Hershey's To Close Oakdale Plant". KCRA 3 (NBC) (Hearst Television, Inc.). April 30, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2011.

23.^  to: a b Salerno, Christina (May 1, 2007). "Hershey Closing". The Modesto Bee (McClatchy Corp.). Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2011.

24. ^ Salerno, Christina (February 2, 2008). "Employees get teary eyed as the last Reese's roll off Hershey line". The Modesto Bee (McClatchy Corp.). Retrieved July 20, 2011.

25. ^ "Hershey Community Archives". July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2011.

26. ^ "Hershey unveils expanded West plant". Lebanon Daily News. September 18, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

27. ^ Retrieved September 29, 2006.

28. ^ "Luden's Home Page". Retrieved September 26, 2012.

29. ^ "10 Board Members to Leave Hershey's Charitable Trust". The New York Times. November 15, 2002. Retrieved July 4, 2013.

30. ^ Standard and Poor's 500 Guide. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-07-147906-6.

31. ^ Retrieved June 30, 2006.

32. ^ Business Wire (December 8, 2011). "Hershey Reaches an Agreement to Acquire Brookside Foods Ltd.". Business Wire. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

33. ^ "Tricks and Treats (Special)". October 26, 1999. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

34. ^ The Supply Chain & Logistics Institute # Chris Malon, Hershey Foods. Retrieved July 3, 2006.

35. ^ "Hershey products pulled off Canadian shelves". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 13, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

36. ^ "Soy not confirmed as salmonella source in Hershey recall". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 17, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

37. ^ Health Canada Advisory. Retrieved November 13, 2006.

38. ^ "Hershey Dominates US Market, but Lags Behind Competitors in Avoiding Forced Labor, Trafficking and Child Labor | International Labor Rights Forum". September 13, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

39. ^ Nerenberg, Jenara (October 5, 2010). "Hershey Gets a Not-So-Sweet Kiss for Fair Trade Month". Fast Company. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

40.^  to: a b "Whole Foods Drops Hershey’s Scharffen Berger Chocolates Over Child Labor Issues". Green America. October 3, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2013.

41. ^ "Hershey to Source 100% Certified Cocoa by 2020". The Hershey company. October 3, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2013.

42. ^ Adams, Susan (April 18, 2012). "Hershey Fudges Labor Relations Image". Forbes. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

43. ^ "Foreign guestworkers, union members protesting Hershey Co. policies for foreign workers". Retrieved August 8, 2012.

44.^  to: a b Kammer, Jerry (August 23, 2011). "Hershey Leaves a Bitter Taste for Foreign Students | Center for Immigration Studies". Retrieved August 8, 2012.

45. ^ Jamieson, Dave (August 19, 2011). "Hershey Labor Controversy Investigated By Legal Experts". Huffington Post.

46. ^ Preston, Julia. "Hershey Exchange Student Warnings were Ignored". The New York Times, October 17, 2011

47. ^ Preston, Julia. "Hershey's Packer Fined by OSHA for Safety Violations". The New York Times, February 22, 2012

48. ^ Wenner, David (November 14, 2012). "Feds say they will collect back wages for foreign students who claimed exploitation at Hershey warehouse". Patriot News. Retrieved December 15, 2012.


External links[]

Official Hershey's chocolate and site

Official Hershey corporate site

Confectionery products of The Hershey Company

Italics indicates discontinued products



Hershey Products



For other uses, see M&M (disambiguation).


Milk Chocolate M&M's


February 28, 1941; 75 years ago

Related brands

Smarties, Minstrels, Reese's Pieces, Revels, Skittles, Treets


Worldwide (over 100 countries)[1]



M&M's (styled as m&m's) are "colorful button-shaped chocolates"[1] produced by Mars, Incorporated, and similar to and inspired by Smarties. The  shell, each of which has the letter "m" printed in lower case on one side, surrounds a filling which varies depending upon the variety of M&M's. The original  had a milk chocolate filling which, upon introducing other variations, was branded as the "plain" variety. "Peanut" M&M's, which feature a peanut coated in milk chocolate, and finally a  shell, were the first variation to be introduced, and they remain a regular variety. Numerous other variations have been introduced, some of which are regular widespread varieties (such as "peanut butter", "almond", "pretzel", "crispy", and "dark chocolate"), while others are limited in duration or geographic availability.


M&M's originated in the United States in 1941, and are now sold in as many as 100 countries.[1] More than 400 million individual M&M's are produced every day in the United States.[2][3] They are produced in different colors, some of which have changed over the years. The -coated chocolate concept was inspired by a method used to allow soldiers to carry chocolate without having it melt. The company's longest-lasting slogan reflects this: "Melts in your mouth, not in your hand."


A traditional milk chocolate M&M weighs about 0.91 grams / 0.032 ounces[4] and has about 4.7 kilocalories (kcal) of food energy (1.7 kcal from fat).[5]

Contents  [hide]

1 History 1.1 1941–1979

1.2 1980–Present

2 Varieties

3 Marketing 3.1 E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial

3.2 Marketing campaigns

3.3 Joint marketing campaigns

3.4 Related brands

4 M&M's characters

5 Color changes in chocolate M&M's

6 Health concerns

7 See also

8 References

9 External links





Plain/Milk Chocolate M&M's were introduced in 1941.

Forrest Mars, Sr., son of the founder of the Mars Company Frank C. Mars, copied the idea for the  in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War when he saw soldiers eating British made Smarties, chocolate pellets with a colored shell of what confectioners call hard panning (essentially hardened sugar syrup) surrounding the outside, preventing the  from melting. Mars received a patent for his own process on March 3, 1941.[6][full citation needed] Production began in 1941 in a factory located at 285 Badger Avenue in Clinton Hill, Newark, New Jersey. When the company was originally founded it was M&M Limited.[7] The two "Ms" represent the names of Forrest E. Mars Sr., the founder of Newark Company, and Bruce Murrie, son of Hershey Chocolate's president William F. R. Murrie, who had a 20 percent share in the product.[8] The arrangement allowed the  to be made with Hershey chocolate, as Hershey had control of the rationed chocolate at the time.[9]

M&M's chocolate  in cross-section with millimeter ruler for scale. Shows layers of hard panned coating.

The demand for the  during World War II caused an increase in production and its factory moved to bigger quarters at 200 North 12th Street in Newark, New Jersey, where it remained until 1958 when it moved to a bigger factory at Hackettstown. During the war, the  were exclusively sold to the military.[10]

Peanut M&M's were introduced in 1954.In 1950, a black "M" was imprinted on the  giving them a unique trademark. It was changed to white in 1954.[7]

In the early 1950s, the Midwest Research Institute (now MRIGlobal) in Kansas City, Missouri, worked on behalf of M&M's to perfect a process whereby 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of chocolate centers could be coated every hour.[11]

Peanut M&M's were introduced in 1954, but first appeared only in the color tan. They were debuted at the same time as the tagline "Melts in your mouth, not in your hand." In 1960, M&M's added the yellow, red, and green colors.


In the 1980s, M&M's were introduced internationally to Australia, Canada, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom.[12]

Although they were marketed and then withdrawn in the 1960's, almond-centered M&M's hit stores again in 1988 in limited release, with appearances only during Christmas and Easter times; they became a standard part of the product line in 1992.

Also in 1986, M&M's launched Holidays Chocolate  for Easter and Christmas, with the Easter  having bunny, chick, and egg symbols on pastel-colored shells, and the Christmas  having pine tree, bell, and candle symbols on red and green shells; with the latter also having a special mint flavor. By 1993, the holiday symbols were replaced with the standard trademark "M".

In 1991, Peanut Butter M&M's were released. These  have peanut butter inside the chocolate center and the same color scheme as the other brands. As of at least 2013, the size of the peanut butter M&M has become slightly smaller.

In 1996, Mars introduced "M&M's Minis", smaller  usually sold in plastic tubes instead of bags.[13]

In 1999, Crispy M&M's were released. They were slightly larger than the milk chocolate variety and also featured a crispy wafer center. They were discontinued in the United States in 2005, and remained available in Europe, and Southeast Asia. On October 2, 2014, it was announced that Crispy M&M's would return to the United States in January 2015.

In July 2001, Dulce de Leche M&M's were introduced in five markets with large Hispanic populations: Los Angeles, California; San Diego, California; Miami, Florida; Mcallen-Brownsville, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas.[14] The flavor never became popular with the Hispanic community, who preferred existing M&M's flavors, and it was discontinued in most areas by early 2003.[15]

In 2010, Pretzel M&M's were released. They contain a crunchy, salty pretzel center inside of the chocolate coating and are about the same size as the Peanut M&M's, but their shape tends to be more spherical.

In 2013, the M&M's chocolate bar was re-released. It was originally released in 2004, and named M-Azing.

In 2014, Mega M&M's were re-introduced. Before then, the 'Mega M&M's' had been released in 2007 promoting the Shrek Movies, being dubbed "Ogre Sized M&M's."In 2015, Crispy M&M's were re-introduced in the United States. They had remained available continuously in Europe and Australia.

In 2016, the M&M cookie has been re-introduced in the United States.

Also in 2016, the M&M's flavor vote started in which the fans can vote for either honey, coffee, or chili nut M&M's to go with peanut M&M's.


M&M's varieties have included the following sizes and fillings:

sizes: regular (in the following flavors) , minis, mega (x3 the chocolate) and the "chocolate bar".

chocolate: milk chocolate, dark chocolate, white chocolate

nut: peanuts, almonds, peanut butter, dark chocolate peanut, strawberried peanut butter

spice and herb: mint chocolate, cinnamon, pumpkin spice, white chocolate peppermint, holiday mint, gingerbread, mint crisp, pumpkin spice latte,mocha

fruit: orange chocolate, cherry, raspberry, cherry cordial, pineapple, coconut,  apple

dessert: pretzel, birthday cake, white chocolate  corn, red velvet, white chocolate carrot cake, vanilla shake, crispy, three milks (tres leche), and pecan pie.




Over the years, marketing has helped build and expand the M&M's brand. Computer-animated graphics, personification of the  as characters with cartoon-like storytelling, and various merchandising techniques including the introduction of new flavors, colors and customizable merchandise have helped to increase the brand's recognition as a  icon.

E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial[]

In 1982, the Mars  bar company rejected the inclusion of M&M's in the new Steven Spielberg movie E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial. Competitor Hershey, on the other hand, took a chance with their Reese's Pieces, which is similar to M&M's but contains a peanut butter filling, and with the blockbuster success its  sales dramatically increased, perhaps by as much as 300%.[16]

Marketing campaigns[]

In 1990, M&M's exhibited at New York's Erie County Fair a life-size fiberglass cow covered with 66,000 M&M —each adhered by hand with the "m" logo on each  facing outward. According to a website run by the cow's designer, Michael Adams, the stunt earned M&M Mars $1 million in free publicity because it was reported on by Newsweek magazine, as well as the New York Post, UPI and WABC-TV, and Live with Regis.[17]


In 1995, the company ran the M&M's Color Campaign, a contest in which participants were given the choice of selecting purple, blue, or pink as the color of a new variety of M&M's. The announcement of the winning color (blue) was carried on most of the television networks' news programs as well as the talk shows of David Letterman and Jay Leno.[18] As part of the contest results, the company had the Empire State Building lighted in blue.[18] Although the financial details of these deals were not disclosed and neither was the campaign's effect on sales, one marketing book estimated that the company "collected millions" in free publicity and that the campaign "certainly" resulted in an increasing of the brand's awareness.[18]


In 1998, M&M's were styled as "The Official  of the New Millennium," as MM is the Roman numeral for 2000. This date was also the release of the rainbow M&M's, which are multi-colored and filled with a variety of different fillings.


In 2000, "Plain" M&M's (a name created in 1954 when "Peanut" M&M's were introduced) were renamed "Milk Chocolate" M&M's, and pictures of the  pieces were added to the traditional brown and white packaging.[19][20]


Joint marketing campaigns[]

In 1990, Mars Snackfood US signed up to be a sponsor for NASCAR. Drivers for the M&M's-sponsored car through the years have included Ernie Irvan (1999), Ken Schrader (2000–02), Eliott Sadler (2003–06), Ricky Rudd (2007), David Gilliland (2006–07), Kyle Busch (2008-current), and Michael McDowell.

The introduction of the blue M&M to Australia was promoted by the Australian Football League's Carlton Football Club, which wore sky-blue colored guernseys in one of its matches in 1997 instead of its traditional navy blue – a color which the successful and fiercely traditional club had worn since the 1870s.[21] In 2010, Mars Snackfood Australia described it as the most successful promotional campaign it had ever engaged in.[22]

In April 2005, M&M's ran the "mPire" promotion to tie in with the Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith movie release. M&M's were offered in dark chocolate varieties (Regular and Peanut) for the first time after a string of Addams Family M&M's commercials.

In May 2004, M&M's ran a Shrek 2 promotion to tie in with the movie's release. M&M's were offered "ogre-sized" (65% larger) in swamp/ogre colors. They were sold at many stores displayed in huge cardboard-cutout ogre displays.

In the summer of 2005, Mars added "Mega M&M's" to the lineup.[23] These , at 55% larger than the traditional M&M's, were a little smaller than the ogre-sized version. They were available in milk chocolate and peanut varieties. The colors for Mega M&M's were changed to less-bright colors, ostensibly to appeal to older consumers: teal (replacing green), beige (replacing orange), maroon (replacing red), gold (replacing yellow), blue-gray (replacing blue), and brown.

Outside of the M&M store in Times Square, New York City

In July 2006, Dark Chocolate M&M's reappeared in a purple package, followed in 2007 by Dark Chocolate Peanut M&M's. Also in 2006, the company piloted White Chocolate M&M's as a tie-in with their Pirates of the Caribbean promotion. The company also offered eight new flavors of M&M's via online sales, as well as at M&M's World locations: "All That Razz"; "Eat, Drink, & Be Cherry"; "A Day at the Peach"; "Orange-U-Glad"; "Mint Condition"; "AlmonDeeLicious"; "Nut What You Think" and "Cookie Monster". Mars also released a "Crispy Mint" variety in Australia that year.


The M&M's sponsored NASCAR stock car driven by Kyle Busch

Also in 2006, M&M's became the official chocolate of NASCAR.

In 2007, M&M's introduced a limited-ion raspberry flavor called "M&M's Razzberry Chocolate ".

Also in 2007, M&M's produced a 50-foot, smiling Lady Liberty M&M statue to kick off a campaign encouraging Americans to create their own M&M characters at The website allows for people to log in and create their own character from scratch. They can choose features such as the color, shape, hair and accessories.

In 2008, two limited-ion varieties of the  were introduced – "Wildly Cherry" M&M's, and, as a marketing tie-in with the film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, "Mint Crisp" M&M's.

M&M's also introduced another new product called "M&M's Premiums" in 2008. They come in five flavors – chocolate almond, mint chocolate, mocha, raspberry almond, and triple chocolate (milk, dark, and white chocolate), which are sold in small upright cartons with a plastic bag inside. M&M's Premiums do not have a  shell but are coated with carnauba wax and color. Dark Chocolate was added in 2009, replacing Mocha.

During the summer of 2008, My M&M's launched 'Faces,' which allows consumers to print the faces of loved ones on M&M's chocolate  at

In February 2009, M&M's launched the "M&M’s Colour Break-Up" promotion in Australia where M&M's were sold in separate packs (one for each color): the packs included a code to win prizes.[24]

In Summer 2009, M&M's launched a limited-ion "Strawberried Peanut Butter" variant to tie in with the release of Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. In addition, M&M's launched a limited ion "Coconut M&M's," which became a permanent item in 2010.

M&M's World on the Las Vegas Strip

In early 2010, M&M's Bare All were released as part of a competition in Australia and New Zealand.[25] M&M's Bare All winning packs were ordinary M&M's, but without colored shells. An official website was launched, along with television advertisements.[citation needed] In April 2010, M&M's launched a new pretzel variety.[26]

In November 2011, Mars released M&M's Cinnamon Milk Chocolate for Christmas.

About the time pretzel M&M's came out, the M&M's wrapper designs in the U.S. were redone, from the old design, used from 2004-early 2010.

In 2012, M&M's released two new Dark Chocolate flavors: Raspberry and Mint. Also that year, M&M's released a White Chocolate flavor for the Easter season. From May 30, 2012 onwards, M&M's will be launched in Macau. Its Macanese launch language is Portuguese. In 2012, Peanut M&M's were produced in the UK in a limited ion "Red, White and Blues only" pack, in connection with the country's Diamond Jubilee and 2012 Olympics. The trademark 'M' remains white on the white . The commercial promoting this promotional package has Yellow donning various outfits of British stereotypes to try and get into the limited ion pack. Simarly, to promote the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Peanut M&M's were produced in a pack that contained only green, yellow, and blue , dubbed "Brazilian M&M's" in reference to the colors of the flag of Brazill.

In 2013, M&M's launched the "Better with M" campaign, which included cause-related marketing. The campaign worked with Habitat for Humanity and encouraged fans to use a Facebook app to volunteer at the various sites where the homes were being built.[27] The advertising campaign was one of the largest that Mars had ever executed.[27] The 2013 "America Better With M" initiative sough to provide money directly to Habitat for Humanity through offering limited versions of M&Ms in red, white and blue.

Related brands[]

Related  brands from Mars include Minstrels, Revels, Skittles, and Treets.

M&M's World specialty shops have been established in some locations, including Las Vegas, New York, and London.

Several M&Ms-themed video games have been created. The first was M&M's: The Lost Formulas, which was released on September 28, 2000.

M&M's characters[]

The six "spokes" for M&M's since 2012

Early black-and-white adverts for the  in 1954 featured two talking, anthropomorphic M&M characters - one plain and one peanut - diving into a swimming pool full of chocolate.[28]

Concurrent with 1995's blue M&M campaign, M&M's introduced computer animated "spokes" in their television commercials. These include the team of the cynical and sardonic Red (originally voiced by Jon Lovitz, thereafter Billy West[29]) who is the mascot for milk chocolate M&M's, and the happy and gullible Yellow (originally voiced by John Goodman, thereafter J.K. Simmons), who is the mascot for peanut M&M's (he was originally known as "Peanut" when first introduced). Other mascots include the "cool one", Blue (voiced by Phil Hartman until his death in 1998, thereafter Robb Pruitt) who is the mascot for almond M&M's; the seductive Green (voiced by Cree Summer), who is the mascot for dark chocolate M&M's (she was previously the mascot for dark chocolate and coconut M&Ms but now is peanut butter); and the slightly neurotic Orange real name Crispy (voiced by Eric Kirchberger), who was introduced when Crispy M&M's were first released and returned when Pretzel M&M's debuted in 2010. Orange, upon his return, was joined by the second non-M&M mascot, Pretzel Guy, who "supporting" him and offering helpful advice as he hates the idea of having a pretzel put inside his body.

Other mascots that were introduced, but no longer used, are Almond, the original green guy; Orange, a female peanut character, Chocolate Bar; the first non-M&M character that always gets foil or out done by Red and Yellow by being melted when M&M's can't, and the Swarmees for M&M's Minis , which are portrayed as destructive yet crafty troublemakers who Red and Yellow are always trying unsuccessfully to contain.

Female M&M's mascots were introduced in 1995. Green was the milk chocolate mascot and Tan was the peanut. Marketing discontinued Tan when they introduced the then new Blue mascot. Green was the only female M&M's mascot from her introduction in 1995 until 2012, when M&M's unveiled a new additional spokes, the businesslike Ms. Brown (voiced by Vanessa Williams), the "Chief Chocolate Officer."[30] She made her debut in a Super Bowl XLVI advertisement, where several people at a party assume she is naked because her shell is the same color as her insides, which causes Red to remove his outer shell thinking "it's that kind of party", and start dancing to "I'm Sexy And I Know It" by LMFAO.

Animated M&M's characters and the performers voicing them




Current voice artist

Former voice artist


Red Milk Chocolate Billy West Jon Lovitz


Yellow Peanut J.K. Simmons John Goodman


Blue Almond Robb Pruitt Phil Hartman


Green Peanut Butter (Originally Mint and Coconut) Cree Summer N/A


Crispy Pretzel (Originally Crispy) Eric Kirchberger N/A


Ms. Brown Dark Chocolate Mint Vanessa Williams N/A

Color changes in chocolate M&M's[]

Transparent chutes hold M&Ms of various colors.

In early 1995, Mars ran a promotion in which consumers were invited to vote on which of blue, pink, or purple would replace the tan M&M's. Blue was the winner, replacing tan in the fall of 1995. Consumers could vote by calling 1-800-FUN-COLOR. Ads for the new blue colors featured a plain and an almond blue M&M character as Red and Yellow take notice of trying to do takes in the commercial by painting themselves blue where they appear on stage with B.B. King singing the blues, but the filmmakers had to cut the scene as they were not the real blue M&M's; another featured Red and Yellow holding their breath to look like the new blue M&M's, where Steven Weber sees the three M&M's, Red, Yellow, and Blue; and one more featuring Weber talking to the blue M&M if he had dived into the chocolate pool, but did not.

In 2002, Mars solicited votes in their first ever "M&M's Global Color Vote" to add a new color from three choices: aqua (turquoise), pink, and purple. This time, purple won and was featured for a limited time. To help the colors get votes, Ken Schrader and his MB2 Motorsports team, who was sponsored by M&M's at the time, ran four paint schemes during the 2002 NASCAR Winston Cup Series season representing the promotion (one for aqua, one for pink, one for purple, and another one with all three colors on the car.) Specially marked packages of M&M's were released in Japan. If you happened to find all purple M&M's in a bag you won 100 million yen (equivalent to approximately $852,000).

On January 1, 2004, at the stroke of midnight, Mars removed all of the colors of M&M's and made them black-and-white on both their  and the packaging. It coincided with a commercial parodying The Wizard of Oz where Dorothy is home in bed and looks out of the window and sees what the colors of the four M&M's were. The goal was to help the M&M's find their colors in black-and-white packages of M&M's, in this order: brown, orange, red, green, yellow, and blue. After all of the colors have been found, the colored packaging returned, and began carrying the theme "Chocolate is better in color".

Since 2004 M&M's have been available online in 17 colors, with personalized phrases on each  on the opposite side from the "m".[31] Released around Christmas, these custom-printed M&M's were originally intended for holiday greetings, but are now available all year round.

For the 2008 Valentine's Day season, Mars introduced all-green bags of M&M's. This was due to common urban folklore that says green M&M's are an aphrodisiac.[32] They were brought back for 2009 alongside the "Ms. Green Heats Up Valentine's Day" contest.

In October 2011, Mars released M&M's White Chocolate  Corn exclusively in the United States for Halloween. These  come in three -corn inspired colors: white, bright yellow, and bright orange.

The following is a summary of the changes to the colors of the flagship (milk chocolate) flavor of M&M's, the only filling manufactured continuously since the beginning of the brand. From 1941 until 1969, each package contained M&M's in five different colors; when red M&M's were reintroduced in 1987, they were added as a sixth color instead of replacing any of the existing colors.


Health concerns[]

Red  were eliminated in 1976[33] because of health concerns over the dye amaranth (FD&C Red #2), which was a suspected carcinogen, and were replaced with orange-colored . This was done despite the fact that M&M's did not contain the dye; the action was purely to satisfy worried consumers. Red  were reintroduced ten years later, but they also kept the orange colored M&M's. Paul Hethmon, then a student at University of Tennessee, started the campaign to bring back red M&M's as a joke that would eventually become a worldwide phenomenon.[34]

See also[]

Portal icon United States portal

Smarties, a similar  made by Nestle, not marketed in the U.S.

Cadbury Gems are similar to M&M's and are produced by Cadbury India. They contain chocolate centers, come in a variety of colors, and have nothing printed on them.



1.^  to: a b c M&M's  fades to black and white, a December Reuters article via USA Today

2. ^ "The Mars Family Net Worth". TheRichest. Retrieved 2015-11-22.

3. ^ "M&M's Mega -- with three times as much chocolate -- hits stores". Retrieved 2015-11-22.

4. ^ Per M&M/Mars FAQ, How many  are in a bag?

5. ^ By calculation from M&M's nutrition info page.

6. ^ "Inventor of the Week: Archive". Retrieved June 27, 2010.

7.^  to: a b "Looking Back at Newark Origins of World-Famous M&M Chocolates - - Retrieved August 28, 2008". April 12, 1981. Retrieved February 21, 2013.

8. ^ Murrie, William F.R.; 1873–1950 - - Retrieved January 22, 2011

9. ^ "Inventor of the Week: Archive". Retrieved January 15, 2010.

10. ^ "Looking Back at Newark Origins of World-Famous M&M Chocolates - - Retrieved August 28, 2008". April 12, 1981. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

11. ^ "MRI Breakthroughs". September 11, 2001. Archived from the original on July 2, 2008. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

12. ^ "M&M’S® About M&MSŽ: History". 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-11-21.

13. ^ "M&M Minis". Retrieved February 21, 2012.

14. ^ "M&M/MARS Woos Latinos With New "M&M's" Dulce de Leche-Caramel Chocolate ; New Flavor to Premiere in Markets With Highest Concentration of Latinos. | Food & Beverage > Food Industry from". Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

15. ^ "Hot Seat ! Dulce de Leche M&M’s Fail". Archived from the original on October 22, 2004.

16. ^ Snopes: Taking it E.T.

 "Business by its very nature is cut-throat; competitors rarely aid one another because one company's success almost invariably comes at the expense of the other's vitality. When such leg-ups occur, they are often inadvertent — the result of one firm's having failed to take advantage of an opportunity that its competitor later cleaned up on. Such was the case when Mars, Inc. passed on the chance for its flagship product, M&Ms, to be the  used in 1982 film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Its turn-down cleared the way for Hershey Foods Corporation to make a remarkable splash for its Reese's Pieces."

17. ^ "Events - M&M  Cow". Retrieved January 15, 2010.





Hershey's also manufactures military chocolate for the U.S. armed forces.


1 Marketed in both the United States and Canada, but sold as a Hershey’s product only within Canada. U.S. rights owned by Nestlé.

2 Marketed in a number of countries, but sold as a Hershey’s product only within the United States. Brand owned by Nestlé.

3 Marketed in a number of countries, but sold as a Hershey’s product only within the United States. Brand owned by Mondelēz International.


Categories: Companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange

Hershey, Pennsylvania

Chocolate companies

Companies based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Confectionery companies of the United States

Companies established in 1894

American brands

The Hershey Company

This page was last modified on 27 August 2015, at 20:26.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.