The History of Barcel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Barcel's Logo

Barcel is a maker of tortilla, potato chips and other confectionery and snack foods. It is a unit of Gro Bimbo created in 1950. It is based in Lerma, Mexico. A different company with the same name, but operating in Chile, was acquired by PepsiCo in 1998.


Chips, fries home-style cut into slices. Its flavors include Marinated, Jalapeño, La Diabla, Fire and the classic sea salt.

In special issues have emerged as Limon presentations - pepper, lemon - Chipotle, 3 Cheese, spacious and well-Cream, Jalapeño Cheese, Worcestershire Sauce and Spicy Salsa Valentina.

Takis (formerly called Taquis), a roll-shaped snack, prepared in the following presentations: fuego azul,spicy snack topped with a blue mystery spice powder

Fuego, the hottest of all varieties. It is also the most popular flavor (purple packaging).

Guacamole, spicy snack topped with a style of salsa guacamole (white packaging)

Nitro, a habanero chile flavor (black-red packaging)

Original, slightly spicy snack (green packaging)

Salsa Brava, a slightly spicier snack than the original (yellow packaging)

Xplosion, a recent cheese-flavored variety (orange packaging)

Zombie, habanero and cucumber flavor (black-green packaging) "crunchy fajita",a chicken fajita flavor of this well known snack with a yellowish appearance (green packaging).


The following versions were discontinued: Pastor, a presentation of the meat-flavored snack pastor (red packaging).

Black, a presentation of snack made with blue masa, the presentation was less durable in the market (black packaging).

Toreadas fries spicy jalapeño and habanero presentations.

Papa-tinas, slightly spicy french fries.

Karameladas Pop, some popcorn and  candied special ion chamoy.

Big Mix, a mixture of six snacks.

Big Papas, straight-cut fries.

Runners, a corn snack shaped like a car, with a hot sauce flavor.

Jetters, a spicy snack shaped aircraft; discontinued shortly after it hit the market.

Quezas, snack shaped like a Mexican quesadilla with cheese and chile flavor was discontinued in early 2010. During its marketing underwent a change of presentation.

Hot Nuts, peanuts covered with a thick layer of hot pepper.

Kiyakis, Japanese style peanuts.

Waves, wavy-cut fries with a chili cheese flavor.

Chip-otles, a chipotle flavored corn snack.

Tostachos, a hexagonal shaped snack flavored Cheddar jalapeño and cheese.

Golden Nuts, including peanuts about various styles and savory enchiladas, Mexican, Spanish and the nuggets.

Konox, snack shaped tibo that aside from a trapezoid, was discontinued.

Duvalín, a nougat cream, usually include two to four flavors including vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, caramel and hazelnut.

Bubu Lubu, a chocolate-covered treat with a strawberry and marshmallow filling.

External s[]

(Spanish) Official website

PepsiCo's listing of purchasing Barcel

Gro Bimbo

Mexican brands

Categories: Companies established in 1950

Food companies of Mexico

Snack companies of Mexico

Brand name snack foods

Mexican brands

1950 establishments in Mexico





A Unit of Gro Bimbo

Gro Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V.

Gro Bimbo Logo.png



Traded as



Food Processing


December 2, 1945


Lorenzo Servitje

Lorenzo Sendra

Jaime Jorba

Jaime Sendra

Alfonso Velasco

José T. Mata


Mexico City, Mexico

Area served


Key people

Daniel Servitje

(Chairman and CEO)









Tia Rosa


Sara Lee

Mrs Baird's


+100 other brands


Increase US$ 14.1 billion (2014)

Net income

Decrease US$ 0.3 billion (2014)

Total assets

Increase US$ 12.0 billion (2014)

Number of employees



BIMBO Bakeries U.S.A.

BIMBO Mexico


BIMBO Canada

BIMBO Latin Sur

BIMBO Latin Centro

BIMBO Brasil

BIMBO Europa

Canada Bread Company



Gro Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V., known as Bimbo, is a Mexican multinational bakery product manufacturing company headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico. It is the world's largest baking company[1] and operates the largest bakeries in the United States, Mexico and Spain, and has some of the widest distribution networks in Mexico and the United States. It was also the ninth largest company of Mexico by revenues in 2013.[2]


Bimbo reported revenues of US$ 14.1 billion for 2014. It has more than 129,000 employees, 165 manufacturing plants[3] and 2.5 million sales centers [4] located in 22 countries in America, Europe and Asia. It operates more than 100 trademarks, among which are: Bimbo, Tia Rosa, Marinela, Wonder, Barcel, Sara Lee, Mrs Baird's and Oroweat.[5]


Bimbo has one of the widest distribution networks in the world, surpassing 52,000 routes[6] Bimbo operates under a scheme of recurrent sales channels views, making three daily visits to the same establishment.


In June 2015, Bimbo was considered as a possible buyer of Hostess Brands, the bankrt twinkies manufacturer valued at US$ 2 billion. (see below)


Bimbo is listed on the Mexican Stock Exchange since 1980 and is a constituent of the IPC, the main benchmark index of Mexican stocks.


Contents  [hide]

1 History 1.1 Sector and competition

1.2 Structure

1.3 Expansion

1.4 Relevant acquisitions

2 Net sales 2.1 Brands

3 See also

4 References

5 External s



The company Gro Bimbo was started in Mexico in 1945 by Lorenzo Servitje, Roberto Servitje, José T. Mata, Jaime Sendra, Jaime Jorba and Alfonso Velasco. Over fifteen years, under the leadership of Daniel Servitje, current Chairman of the Board and CEO of the Gro, has established itself as a global bakery company, reporting an increase in sales of USD 4.67 billion in 2004 to USD 10.712 billion, in 2011.


The name Bimbo was first coined in 1945. The main hypothesis is that it resulted from the combination of Bingo and Bambi. Later, the founders would know that the children in Italian bimbo are told, while in Hungarian, the word means cocoon and, curiously, the phoneme used in China to name sounds very similar to bread.


The corporate image, a small white teddy bear, resulted from the drawing that came to Mr. Jaime Jorba in a Christmas card, and whom Anita Mata, wife of Jaime Sendra, dressed with a white apron and a chef’s hat, as was given a loaf of bread under his arm.


The Bimbo trademark was recognized as “famous” by the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property on April 23, 2010[8] and is one of the 27 selected brands that have reached this category in the country. In 2014, the Brand Footprint by Kantar World Panel positioned it in seventh place in the food industry in the world.


The first products launched into the market were cellophane-wrapped large and small white loaves of bread, rye bread and toasted bread. By late 1948, there were nine Bimbo products on the market. The line was expanded in 1952 with the production of the Donas del Osito (Bear Cub Doughnuts) started, along with a new line of buns: Bimbollos, Medias Noches and Colchones.


Sector and competition[]


Bimbo is mainly in the area of baking, in the field of pastry and bread for sandwiches, hot dogs and hamburgers. In this sector it controls about 90% of the market.[citation needed] Also it has a stake in the confectioner sector and in the sector of snacks.


Bimbo dominates the area of Mexico, it is estimated that an average Mexican spends around 131.6 dollars a year on branded products.[citation needed]




The Management Council Bimbo is as follows:

President: Daniel Servitje

Secretary: Luis Miguel Briola Substitute Pedro Pablo Barragan

17 Proprietary

Steering Committee: CEO: Daniel Servitje

Deputy Director General: Pablo Elizondo.[9]

Bimbo has several brands, which vary from country to country.


Number of brands


Canada 1 Canada Bread[10]

USA 29 Sara Lee, Mrs Baird's, Earth Grains[11]

Mexico 16 Bimbo, Marinela, Barcel[12]

Central America 13 Monarca, La Mejor, Ideal[13]

Latin America 26 Pullman, Plus Vita, Nutrella[14]

Europe 2 Eagle, Bimbo[15]

United Kingdom 1 New York Bakery Co'[16]

Asia 1 Bimbo[17]




In 1949 the first depot outside Mexico City was inaugurated in the city of Puebla. In 1956, the Bimbo Occidente plant in Guadalajara started operations,[18] with Roberto Servitje as its first General Manager. Four years later the Bimbo del Norte plant was inaugurated in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León.


After an administrative restructure and the launch of successful products such as Gansito and Submarinos Marinela, in 1972[19] the company installed the largest bakery in Latin America and one of the ten largest in the world, in Azcapotzalco, Mexico City.


With an important growth in the products and brands portfolio, such as Barcel, Marinela, Tía Rosa, Ricolino and Suandy, Don Roberto Servitje was appointed as CEO of Gro Bimbo in 1979. A year later, the company started trading 15% of its shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV).[20]


In 1984, the company started its expansion by exporting to the United States. Two years later, the company created a new organizational structure, know as Gro Bimbo till today.


Later, in 1989, Bimbo Central America was created with the opening of a plant in Guatemala.[21] Two years later with the addition of Bimbo Argentina, the Latin America Region Corporate structure was created and in 1995, the company opened two more plants in Chile and in Argentina.


With the appointment of Daniel Servitje as CEO of the company in 1997, the global growth strategy was strengthened. In 1998 the Gro acquired the American bakery Mrs. Baird’s, as well as Plus Vita and Pullman in Brazil, in 2001. A year later it acquired the West region baking business of George Weston Limited in the United States.


Gro Bimbo acquired the Panrico bakery in Beijing in 2007, initiating its presence in the Asian market, expanding its operations in two continents.


On 2008, Gro Bimbo bought Nutrella bakery in Brazil[22] and in 2009 bought all of the George Weston Foods Ltd. in the United States, with the brands Arnold, Boboli, Brownberry, Entenmann’s, Freihofer's, Stroehmann and Thomas’, plus 22 factories and 4,000 delivery trucks.


During 2011, the Gro consolidated two acquisitions, becoming the largest baking company in the world. In September, Gro Bimbo bought Fargo in Argentina, while in October, it closed on the acquisition of Sara Lee's operations in Spain and Portugal, renaming the unit Bimbo Iberia. Thus the company managed to unify the Bimbo brand that operated independently in both countries.


Shortly after, in February 2014, Gro Bimbo announced the acquisition of Canada Bread.[23] The transaction, valued at C$1.83 billion, enabled the Gro to reaffirm its position as the world’s leading baking company by extending its distribution in North America and entering the market of United Kingdom, this last one through the New York Bakery Co. brand, a leading manufacturer of bagels in Europe. In the same year, the company acquired San, a baking company in Ecuador, an operation that led the company to reinforce its presence in America and the world.


Relevant acquisitions[]

1964: Sunbeam brand in Mexico from Quality Bakers of America

1995: Gro Bimbo acquires Coronado

1998: American bakery “Mrs Baird’s”

2001: Plus Vita and Pullman in Brazil

2002: George Weston Limited – owner of the Oroweat brand – in United States

2004: JoyCo in Mexico.

2005: La Corona and El Globo, in Mexico.

2006: Panrico in Beijing

2008: Galletas Gabi in Mexico and Nutrella in Brasil

2009: Weston Foods Inc. in United States

2010: Dulces Vero in Mexico

2011: Sara Lee North American Fresh Bakery in United States, Fargo in Argentina and Bimbo in Spain and Portugal

2014: Canada Bread in Canada and United Kingdom, División Saputo Inc.’s Bakery in Canada[24] and San in Ecuador.

2015: Panrico in Spain and Italian Home Bakery in Toronto, Canadá.[25]


Net sales[]

2009: US$8.9 billion. 55% Foreign Sales.

2010: US$9.2 billion. 53% Foreign Sales.

2011: US$10.7 billion. 54% Foreign Sales.

2012: US$13.1 billion. 59% Foreign Sales.

2013: US$13.8 billion. 61% Foreign Sales.[citation needed]



Fifth place among the Top 25 Mexican brands by Interbrand to Bimbo in 2014.

Seventh Strongest Food Brand in the World and 1st in Latin America, from the Brand Footprint study by Kantar World Panel to Bimbo in 2014

Ranking of the 50 Most Valuable Brands in Latin America from a study conducted by Millward Brown to Gro Bimbo in 2013

Top Brand Award from the Universidad Tecnológica de El Salvador to Gro Bimbo in 2013[citation needed]

See also[]

List of bakeries



1.  ^,_profits_down_at_Gro_Bimbo.html

2.  ^ Las 500 empresas más importantes de México. CNN Expansión.

3.  ^ TERRA Economía. "Carta del Director al II Informe Trimestral 2015".

4.  ^ TERRA Economía. "Carta del Director al II Informe Trimestral 2015".

5.  ^ [file:///C:/Users/mvelez/Downloads/Reporte%20Anual%202014.pdf BIMBO 2014 Annual Report]]

6.  ^ TERRA Economía. "Carta del Director al II Informe Trimestral 2015".

7.  ^ Hostess Brands sale. Bakery and Snaks.

8.  ^ Martínez Castillo Elisa. "Las Marcas Notoriamente Conocidas". p. 19.

9.  ^ "Estructura" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

10.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Canadá" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

11.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Estados Unidos" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

12.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en México" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

13.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Centro América" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

14.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Latinoamérica" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

15.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Europa" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

16.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Reino Unido" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

17.  ^ "Nuestras Marcas en Asia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 May 2015.

18.  ^ Excelsior. "Roberto Servitje: Bimbo no le debe nada al Tratado de Libre Comercio".

19.  ^ Servitje Sendra Roberto, PEARSON EDUCACIÓN, México 2003. "Bimbo: Estrategia de éxito empresarial". p. 260. ISBN 970-26-0077-4.

20.  ^ Bolsa Mexicana de Valores [1]

21.  ^ ALTO NIVEL. "Bimbo, rico en mercadotecnia".

22.  ^ CNN EXPANSIÓN. "Bimbo da una gran mordida a Nutrella".

23.  ^ CNN EXPANSIÓN. "Bimbo acuerda la compra de Canada Bread".

24.  ^

25.  ^ ElFinanciero. "El Osito Bimbo adquiere otra panificadora en Canadá".


External s[]

Official website

Company website in United States

Gro Bimbo

Mexico IPC companies of Mexico

Mexican brands


Portal icon

Portal icon



Categories: Companies established in 1945

Food companies of Mexico

Companies listed on the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores

Bakeries of Mexico

Bear mascots

1945 establishments in Mexico

Companies based in Mexico City

Conglomerate companies of Mexico

Mexican brands




For other uses, see Twinkie (disambiguation).


Hostess twinkies tweaked.jpg

Whole and split Twinkies


Snack cake

Place of origin

United States

Region or state

River Forest, Illinois (Chicago, Illinois)


James Dewar

Main ingredients

Wheat flour, sugar, corn syr, niacin, water, high fructose corn syr, Eggs, shortening, and others

Cookbook: Twinkies   Media: Twinkies


A Twinkie is an American snack cake, marketed as a "Golden Sponge Cake with Creamy Filling." It was formerly made and distributed by Hostess Brands which was banned but then began to be sold under the Hostess Brands name. The brand is currently owned by private equity firms Apollo Global Management and C. Dean Metropoulos and Company. During bankrtcy proceedings, Twinkie production was suspended on November 21, 2012, and resumed after an absence of several weeks on American store shelves, becoming available again nationwide on July 15, 2013.[1][2]


Twinkies are produced in Canada by Saputo Incorporated's Vachon Inc. (at a bakery in Montreal) which owns the Canadian rights to the product and were still available during the absence in the U.S. market.[3][4][full citation needed] Twinkies are also available in Mexican stores as "Submarinos" and "Twinkies" made by Marinela, and as "Tuinky" made by Wonder; both Marinela and Wonder are subsidiaries of Mexican bread company Gro Bimbo.[5][6] In Egypt, which does not permit imports of the snack cake from other countries, Twinkies are produced under the company a. Twinkies are also available in the United Kingdom under the Hostess brand name and sold in Tesco and B&M home stores.


Contents  [hide]

1 History 1.1 Hostess bankrtcy

1.2 Return of Twinkies to U.S. market

2 Use as an ingredient 2.1 Deep-fried Twinkie

2.2 Twinkie wiener sandwich

2.3 Cakes and pies

3 Cultural references 3.1 Twinkie defense

3.2 Song lyrics

3.3 Shelf life

3.4 Twinkie diet

4 See also

5 References

6 Further reading

7 External s



Box of Hostess Twinkies by Saputo Incorporated (in production)

Twinkies were invented in Schiller Park, Illinois[7] on April 6, 1930, by James Alexander Dewar, a baker for the Continental Baking Company.[8] Realizing that several machines used to make cream-filled strawberry shortcake sat idle when strawberries were out of season, Dewar conceived a snack cake filled with banana cream, which he dubbed the Twinkie.[9] Ritchy Koph said he came  with the name when he saw a billboard in St. Louis for "Twinkle Toe Shoes".[10] During World War II, bananas were rationed and the company was forced to switch to vanilla cream. This change proved popular, and banana-cream Twinkies were not widely re-introduced. The original flavor was occasionally found in limited-time promotions, but the company used vanilla cream for most Twinkies.[11] In 1988, Fruit and Cream Twinkies were introduced with a strawberry filling swirled into the cream. The product was soon dropped.[12] Vanilla's dominance over banana flavoring would be challenged in 2005, following a month-long promotion of the movie King Kong. Hostess saw its Twinkie sales rise 20 percent during the promotion, and in 2007 restored the banana-cream Twinkie to its snack line.[13]

Hostess bankrtcy[]

On January 11, 2012,[14] parent company Hostess filed for Chapter 11 bankrtcy protection.[10] Twinkie sales for the year ended December 25, 2011, were 36 million packages, down almost 20% from a year earlier.[10] Hostess said customers had migrated to healthier foods.[10] On November 16, 2012, Hostess officially announced that it "will be winding down operations and has filed a motion with the U.S. Bankrtcy Court seeking permission to close its business and sell its assets, including its iconic brands and facilities." Bakery operations were suspended at all plants.[15]


Box of Hostess Twinkies by Hostess Brands

On November 19, 2012, Hostess and the Bakers Union agreed to mediation, delaying the shutdown for two days. On November 21, 2012, U.S. bankrtcy judge Robert Drain approved Hostess' request to shutdown, temporarily ending Twinkie production in the United States.[16]


Return of Twinkies to U.S. market[]

On March 12, 2013, it was reported that Twinkies would return to store shelves in May of that year. Twinkies, along with other famed Hostess Brands, were purchased out of bankrtcy by Apollo Global Management and Metropoulos & Co for $410 million.[17][18] Twinkies returned to U.S. shelves on July 15, 2013.[19]

Before Hostess Brands filed for bankrtcy, Twinkies were reduced in size. They now contain 135 calories and have a mass of 38.5 grams, while the original Twinkies contained 150 calories and had a mass of 42.5 grams. The new Twinkies also have a longer shelf life of 45 days, which was also a change made before bankrtcy, compared to the 26 days of the original Twinkies.[20]

Use as an ingredient[]

Twinkies have notably been used as a component ingredient in other dishes.

Deep-fried Twinkie[]

A deep-fried Twinkie

A deep-fried Twinkie involves freezing the cake, dipping it into batter, and deep-frying it to create a variation on the traditional snack cake. In a story in The New York Times speaking of the Deep Fried Twinkie with its inventor, Christopher Sell, who is originally from Rugby, England, it was described in this way: "Something magical occurs when the pastry hits the hot oil. The creamy white vegetable shortening filling liquefies, impregnating the sponge cake with its luscious vanilla flavour.... The cake itself softens and warms, nearly melting, contrasting with the crisp, deep-fried crust in a buttery and suave way. The pièce de résistance, however, is a ruby-hued berry sauce, adding a tart sophistication to all that airy sugary goodness".[21] The Texas State Fair had introduced the fried Twinkie to great popular acclaim, and the notion spread to other state fairs across the U.S., as well as some establishments that specialize in fried foods.[22] Fried Twinkies are sold throughout the U.S. in fairs as well as ball games, and in various restaurants.

Twinkie wiener sandwich[]

See also: "Weird Al" Yankovic and UHF (film)

A scene from the 1989 film UHF shows the creation of "Weird Al" Yankovic's signature food, the "Twinkie Wiener Sandwich". The snack consists of an overturned Twinkie split open as a makeshift bun, a hot dog, and Easy Cheese put together and dipped in milk before eating. Yankovic has stated that he has switched to using tofu hot dogs since becoming a vegetarian, but still enjoys the occasional Twinkie Wiener Sandwich.[23]

Cakes and pies[]

Twinkies can be used in recipes as quick substitute for sponge cake. In 2013, Fox News published a list of best Twinkie recipes, which included a tiramisu and Paula Deen's "Twinkie pie".[24]

Twinkies, as-is or split lengthwise, can also be used as the cake in the strawberry shortcake dessert.

The chocolate creme from the middle of double chocolate bismarcks or other such pasties can be removed from the pastry and used to replace that which comes in the middle of the Twinkie.

Cultural references[]

Twinkie defense[]

Main article: Twinkie defense


The Twinkie defense is a pejorative term for a criminal defendant's claim that some unusual factor (such as allergies, coffee, nicotine, or sugar) diminished the defendant's responsibility for the alleged crime. The term arose from Herb Caen's description of the trial of Dan White, who was convicted in the fatal shootings of San Francisco mayor George Moscone and city servisor Harvey Milk in 1978. During the trial, psychiatrist Martin Blinder testified that White had suffered from depression, causing diminished capacity. As an example of this, he mentioned that White, formerly a health food advocate, had begun eating junk food.[9]

Song lyrics[]

John Fogerty's 2004 album Deja Vu All Over Again includes the satirical and somewhat world-weary song "Nobody's Here Anymore", which ponders people's infatuation with modern technology and its ever more sophisticated consumer devices. "He got a stash of Twinkies  in his room" is a line lamenting the self-absorption and social isolation of the protagonist of the song's first verse.

Twinkies are also one of the products mentioned in Junk Food Junkie, a Top 40 1976 novelty song by Larry Groce.


Shelf life[]

A common urban legend claims that Twinkies have an infinite shelf life, and can last unspoiled for a relatively long time of ten, fifty, or one hundred years due to the chemicals used in their production.[25]

In reality, Twinkies are on the shelf for a short time; a company executive told the New York Times in 2000 that the "Twinkie is on the shelf no more than 7 to 10 days."[26] The maximum shelf life was reported to have been 26 days, until improvements made beginning in 2012 increased it to 45 days.[27]


Twinkie diet[]


In 2010, Kansas State University professor Mark Haub went on a "convenience store" diet consisting mainly of Twinkies, Oreos, and Doritos in an attempt to demonstrate to his students "that in weight loss, pure calorie counting is what matters most, not the nutritional value of the food". He lost 27 pounds over a two-month period, returning his body mass index (BMI) to within normal range.[28][29] In addition to Twinkies, Haub ate Little Debbie snack cakes, cereals, cookies, brownies, Doritos, Oreos and other kinds of high calorie, low-nutrition foods that are usually found at convenience stores. However, he splemented this diet daily with a multivitamin, a protein shake and fresh vegetables.[30]


Because of their cake-like consistency and high energy density, Twinkies, other Hostess products, as well as Zingers, a Twinkie analogue, and other items of this type were mentioned as good optional food item in the semi-underground book The Pop & Chocolate Milk Diet,[31] which focuses on a high liquid percentage intake along with splements, with a central idea being pre-empting hunger pangs by coating, inflating, and/or filling  (as with crackers, for example) the stomach.[32] It can be said that a somewhat similar conclusion to that of Dr Haub was reached by the authors and speakers on the diet.[31]

See also[]

Portal icon Food portal


Chocodile Twinkie

Deep-fried Mars Bar

Ding Dong

Ho Hos

List of deep fried foods

May West

Twinkie the Kid





1.  ^ Parija Kavilanz (July 12, 2013). "'First batch' Twinkies go on sale at Walmart". CNN. Retrieved July 13, 2013.

2.  ^ Staff and wire reports (July 12, 2013). "Hostess Twinkies make an early return to Southland shelves". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved July 24, 2013.

3.  ^ Marotte, Bertrand (November 16, 2012). "As Hostess winds , who will bite on Twinkies?". The Globe and Mail.

4.  ^ "Twinkie the Kid Is Alive and Well and Living in Canada". November 16, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

5.  ^[dead ]

6.  ^[dead ]

7.  ^ Staff and wire reports (August 21, 2014). "Hostess closing bakery that created the Twinkie". MSN Money. Retrieved August 21, 2014.

8.  ^ Biemer, John (April 30, 2006). "Homeowner Discovers That Mr. Twinkie Slept There". U-T San Diego. Retrieved June 5, 2011.

9.^   to: a b Belcher, Jerry (June 3, 1985). "Man Who Concocted the Twinkie Dies : James A. Dewar's Treat Is Part of America's Diet and Folklore". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 3, 2011. "It was Dewar's inspiration to fill the cakes with a sugar-cream mixture, the formula for which is still a tightly held secret."

10.^   to: a b c d Ovide, Shira (September 2, 2011). "Great Moments in Twinkies History". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 10, 2011.

11.  ^ "The History of the Hostess Twinkie". Retrieved August 30, 2011.

12.  ^ Continental Baking Company (1988). "Fruit and Cream Twinkies commercial". Continental Baking Company. Retrieved March 8, 2011.

13.  ^ Shepherd, Lauren (June 13, 2007). "Hostess selling banana-creme Twinkies". USA Today. Retrieved August 30, 2011.

14.  ^ Knipp, Christopher. "City of Saginaw, Michigan; Notice of Chapter 11" (PDF). Hostess Brands, LLC. Retrieved November 17, 2012.

15.  ^ Erik_Halvorson, Blynn Austin. "Hostess Brands is closed; HOSTESS BRANDS TO WIND DOWN COMPANY AFTER BCTGM UNION STRIKE CRIPPLES OPERATIONS". Hostess Brands, LLC. Media_Division. Retrieved November 16, 2012.

16.  ^ "Twinkie maker Hostess to ‘immediately’ fire 15,000 workers as liquidation approved". Retrieved January 14, 2013.

17.  ^ Chris Isidore (March 13, 2013). "Twinkies due on shelves by summer as $410 million bid OK'd". CNNMoney.

18.  ^ Mark Lacter (March 12, 2013). "Hooray, Twinkies are coming back". LA Observed.

19.  ^ "Twinkies, Hostess snacks back in stores today". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 15, 2013.

20.  ^ Choi, Candace (July 15, 2013). "New Twinkies weigh less, have fewer calories". USA Today. Retrieved July 15, 2013.

21.  ^ "Fry That Twinkie, But Hold the Chips". The New York Times. May 15, 2002. Retrieved August 30, 2011.

22.  ^ "New junk food fad: Deep-fried Twinkies". CNN. September 18, 2002. Archived from the original on 24 January 2002. Retrieved 15 April 2015.

23.  ^ "Midnight Star "Ask Al" Q&As for October/November, 1995". Archived from the original on November 6, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2006.

24.  ^ "Best Twinkies recipes". Fox News. June 24, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2015.

25.  ^ "Forever Twinkies". Snopes – Urban Legends Reference Pages. May 19, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.

26.  ^ Kelley, Tina (March 23, 2000). "Twinkie Strike Afflicts Fans With Snack Famine". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2012.

27.  ^ Kim, Susanna (July 9, 2013). "What's New About the Twinkie and Other Hostess Brands Favorites". ABC News. Retrieved July 22, 2013.

28.  ^ Park, Madison (November 8, 2010). "Twinkie diet helps nutrition professor lose 27 pounds". CNN. Retrieved August 30, 2011.

29.  ^ "Exclusive Interview with Prof. Mark Haub". Retrieved March 2, 2013.

30.  ^

31.^   to: a b The Pop & Chocolate Milk Diet, compiled by PCMD staff, © 24 March 1988, National Caucus-SSFC Publishing, Des Moines, Iowa, no ISBN found

32.  ^ On The Road With The Pop & Chocolate Milk Diet, compiled by staff, © 12 December 1988, National Caucus-SSFC Publishing (Milwaukee)


Further reading[]

Ettlinger, Steve (2008). Twinkie, Deconstructed. Plume. ISBN 978-0-452-28928-4.

External s[]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Twinkies.

Products Page on Hostess' website

The T.W.I.N.K.I.E.S. Project

Twinkies at 75: munch 'em, fry 'em, save 'em for years, The Christian Science Monitor

Weird Al Yankovic making a Twinkie wiener sandwich at YouTube


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