The History of Haribo


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)

Haribo HARIBO Logo.svg

Haribo's logo

Solingen - Haribo 10 ies.jpg

A Haribo factory in Solingen


GmbH & Co. KG

Industry               Confectionery

Founded              December 13, 1920

Founder               Hans Riegel Sr.

Headquarters    Bonn, Germany

Key people

Hans Riegel

Revenue              € 1.7–2.0 billion

Number of employees

about 6,000



Haribo (/ˈhærɨboʊ/ HARR-i-boh) is a German confectionery company, founded in 1920 by Johannes "Hans" Riegel, Sr. It is headquartered in Bonn and the name comes from an abbreviation of Hans Riegel, Bonn.


Haribo is one of the biggest manufacturers of gummy and jelly sweets in the world, with its products mainly consisting of gummy bears, other jelly sweets and liquorice. The company has five factories in Germany and 13 throughout the rest of Europe, and sales offices in almost every country in Europe, as well as in the United States and Australia.


The Landesmuseum Koblenz created a traveling exhibition about the history of Haribo in 2006.



    1 History

    2 Key brands

    3 United States presence

    4 International distribution

    5 Slogans

    6 Criticism

    7 References

    8 External links



Haribo made the first gummy in 1922 when Hans Riegel, Sr. invented the first Gummibärchen (little gummy bears). After Hans Riegel, Sr. died during World War II, his son, also named Hans Riegel, took over the company. Over the years, Haribo has expanded its operations, taking over many local confectionery manufacturers in countries all over the world. It began international expansion in the 1960s and entered American markets in the 1980s. It currently operates 15 factories which produce over 100 million gummy bears per day.[1]

Key brands

Countries with Haribo factories in Europe


Haribo's key brands in the UK are Starmix, Tangfastics, Supermix, and Maoam, with Maoam being its own line of chewy sweets.[2] They were once the distributor of Pez products in the United Kingdom, but this is no longer the case. Haribo makes Pontefract Cakes at their factory in Pontefract, West Yorkshire, and other locations. The Fraise Tagada is one of the best-selling varieties in France. Another Haribo product is Happy Cola.

United States presence


Haribo had been imported into the United States for many years by German food importers and sold at German and other gourmet stores at "gourmet prices", mostly in bulk. In Germany, Haribo was not an exclusive gourmet product, but a mass market. When Haribo of America was incorporated in the 1980s in Baltimore, Maryland, Haribo's gummy candies were introduced to the US mass market through areas such as drugstores, grocery stores, and discount stores. The packaging was translated into English, and package weights were adjusted to match U.S. price points and package sizes. A laydown bag was developed for the US supermarket trade, instead of the hanging bag commonly found in German supermarkets, and a boxed product was developed for theaters.


Once this was done and Haribo products in US-style packaging were introduced at confectionery and fancy food shows, Haribo became a popular item. Sales soared the first year, and gummy bears became so popular in the US, Haribo in Germany could not supply enough product, so the US market was soon flooded with German competitors such as Trolli, and Black Forest.

International distribution


Haribo plans to expand to the United Kingdom, China and Brazil. In China it has launched test stores in Shanghai and Guangdong. The US headquarters is located in Baltimore, Maryland. It plans to open new production facilities in Castleford, near Leeds and São Paulo in Brazil.[3]



Haribo's German catch phrase is "Haribo macht Kinder froh – und Erwachsene ebenso" ("Haribo makes children happy – and adults as well"). In English-speaking countries, it uses the slogan "Kids and grown-ups love it so – the happy world of Haribo". The German advertisements were voiced by Thomas Gottschalk from 1991 until 2015. Slogans are used in other languages.



Haribo was accused of using Jewish forced labor in its factories during World War II, but denies this.[4] In 2014, Haribo's Skipper Mix was pulled in some markets because some of the pieces were shaped like caricatures of Asian, African, and Native American masks that some consumers considered to be racist.[5]



Oltermann, Philip (October 13, 2013). "Haribo: the confessions of a confectionery addict". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2015.

"MAOAM". Retrieved 27 July 2015.

Best, Dean. "Haribo to expand in China, US, UK and Brazil". Retrieved 28 July 2015.

Wallace, Charles P. (2000-07-31). "The Final Reckoning". Time Europe (Berlin) 156 (5). Retrieved 2008-11-12.


Licata, Elizabeth (January 18, 2014). "Haribo Pulls Skipper Mix After Racism Accusations". The Daily Meal. Retrieved January 25, 2015.


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haribo.

Official website



Companies established in 1920 Confectionery companies of the United StatesFood companies of GermanyBrand name confectioneryGerman brandsCompanies based in BonnGerman confectionery Gummi candies.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Pez brand. For other uses, see Pez (disambiguation).

"Pez dispenser" redirects here. For the "Seinfeld" episode, see The Pez Dispenser.

Pez PEZ Pieces.jpg

Several pieces of Pez

Place of origin    Austria

Region or state                 Vienna

Creator                 Eduard Haas III

Invented             1927

Main ingredients              Sugar

Variations            Many flavors

Food energy

(per 9 g (1 roll) serving)

35 kcal (147 kJ)

Nutritional value

(per 9 g (1 roll) serving)


Protein                 0 g

Fat          0 g

Carbohydrate    9 g

Other information 

Media: Pez


Pez (trademarked PEZ in capitals) is the brand name of an Austrian and their mechanical pocket dispensers. It takes the shape of pressed, dry, straight-edged, curved-corner, blocks (15 mm (5/8 inch) long, 8 mm (5/16 inch) wide, and 5 mm (3/16 inch) high), with Pez dispensers holding 12 Pez pieces.


Pez was originally introduced in Austria, later exported, notably to the U.S., and eventually became available worldwide. The all-uppercase spelling of the logo echoes the trademark's style on the packaging and the dispensers themselves, with the logo drawn in perspective and giving the appearance that the letters are built out of 44 brick-like Pez candies (14 bricks in the P and 15 in each of the E and Z).


Despite the widespread recognition and popularity of the Pez dispenser, the company considers itself to be primarily a company, and over 3 billion bricks are consumed each year in the U.S. alone.[1] Pez dispensers are part of popular culture in many nations, an example being 'Soul' in Japanese manga series Bleach.[2] Because of the large number of dispenser designs over the years, they are collected by enthusiasts.




    1 History

    2 Flavors

    3 Patents

    4 Injection mold codes

    5 Characters

    6 Fandom

    6.1 Value of Pez dispensers

    6.2 Pez conventions

    7 Film Adaptation

    8 See also

    9 References

    10 Further reading

    11 External links



A Hello Kitty Pez dispenser


Pez was first marketed as a compressed peppermint sweet in Vienna, Austria in 1927 by a maker named Eduard Haas III. Haas created the peppermints using family owned baking powders, and decided to serve the mints in small, hand-size containers. He manufactured a small tin to hold the mints, similar to the modern Altoids tins. The first Pez mint dispensers, known as "regulars," were similar in shape to a cigarette lighter, and dispensed an adult breath mint marketed as an alternative to smoking. They were invented by Oscar Uxa. Haas Food Manufacturing Corporation of Vienna was the first to sell Pez products.


World War II slowed marketing and production. In 1945, manufacturers devised and promoted the Pez Box Regular. In 1952 Eduard Haas introduced his product to the United States, and Curtis Allina headed Pez's U.S. business. In 1955, the Pez company placed heads on the dispensers and marketed them for children. Santa Claus and Mickey Mouse were among the first character dispensers. Since 1950, over 1500 Pez dispensers, including the original character dispensers, have been created.


Pez vending machines were used in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. The first German machines were introduced around 1954 and were produced by DWM (Deutsche Waggon- und Maschinenfabrik) and GWS (Georg Wiegandt und Söhne), both of Berlin, Germany. Machines were later introduced in Switzerland and then in Austria, in October 1956; these were produced by Glerios / R.Seipel & Co. and/or Theodor Braun (Vienna).


In 1973, Pez built a factory in Orange, Connecticut, U.S. In 1983, Scott McWhinnie became the president of the Pez company. He retired in 2003. Joe Vittoria became president of the company in 2004. Around 2005 the size of the original factory was doubled and the Pez dispenser line was expanded. In the mid-1990s peppermint flavored Pez candies were reintroduced along with remakes of the 'regulars'.


In early 2006 the family of the original founder of the company bought back 32.5% of the stock from investment company PGH for €18M. They now own 67.5% of the company. The headquarters are in Traun, Austria. The Pez candies are produced in Traun and Orange, Connecticut, U.S. while the dispensers are produced in Hungary and China.


Pez has come in a wide variety of flavors over the years, including:

A pack containing lemon flavored Pez

















Sour Flavors


    Sour Watermelon

    Sour Green Apple

    Sour Blue Raspberry

    Sour Pineapple


Retired Flavors



    Chlorophyll Mint[3]







Sugar free Flavors


    Sugar free Lemon

    Sugar free Orange

    Sugar free Strawberry


The common American flavors of grape, lemon, orange, raspberry, and strawberry are available in kosher form in specialty markets.



Pez, Inc. has applied for and received patents related to the Pez dispensers, and usually molds the patent number onto the stem of the design. The patent number cannot be reliably used to determine how old the dispenser is.[4] Collectors refer to the first two digits of a patent number as a shorthand for a given patent number. For example, the 5.9 (5,984,285) patent was granted in 1999, but didn't first appear on a Pez item until 2002. By 2007, 4.9 patented items were still regularly appearing on store shelves. Dispensers can also be found with several non-US patents, such as the German "DBP 818.829" (Deutsches Bundes Patent), and the Mexican "Patent Nr 141,242". The patent number timeline related to Pez dispensers are the following:

Patent Year      

Name of patent; notes about the patent

U.S. Patent 2,620,061     1952       Pocket article dispensing container; First patent for the Pez dispenser

U.S. Patent 3,410,455     1968       Dispensing Device for tablets

U.S. Patent 3,845,882     1974       Spring cage for use in a tablet dispensing receptacle

U.S. Patent 3,942,683     1976       Tablet dispensing receptacle

U.S. Patent 4,966,305     1990       Tablet dispenser

U.S. Patent 5,984,285     1999       Plastic spring

U.S. Patent 7,523,841     2009       Tray for storing and individually dispensing tablets

Injection mold codes


Pez dispenser stems will usually also be embossed with several injection mold codes [IMC]. Some, like those found on the bottom of the dispenser feet, will tell which mold position the specific piece came from. Another, found on the side of the stem, indicates the country of origin. The IMC code 4 is followed by a superscripted second number which identifies a specific facility within that country.[5]

IMC        Country

1              Austria/Hungary

2              Austria/Hong Kong

3              Austria/Hungary

4              Austria

5              Yugoslavia/Slovenia

6              Hong Kong/China

7              Czechoslovakia

8              Austria

9              United States

V             Yugoslavia


This article is incomplete. Please help to improve it, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (September 2011)

When the price for Pez in a vending machine was increased to 3 coins, extra space for the bigger cash-box had to be fitted below the chute. It shows "Pez die süße Freude" (Pez the sweet joy) and "Wenn Münzen gefallen, Knopf fest drücken" (Press button in when coins fall).


Early Pez dispensers did not have heads on them. They were what is known now as "regulars". A regular dispenser is just a rectangular box with a contoured flip top for dispensing. Toy character head dispensers were introduced in 1955, after it was introduced in the United States. There are over 550 unique dispenser heads with thousands of variations. The company formerly had a general rule against creating likenesses of real people.


In the 1970s, three historical figures were created: Betsy Ross, Daniel Boone, and Paul Revere, which were released as part of the Bicentennial series. These dispenser heads were not made to actually look like the people they represented, but instead used generic faces with different accessories.


Star Wars Pez dispensers have been amongst the most popular collectibles since they were introduced in the 1990s.[citation needed]


In 2006, a limited-edition series of three Pez dispensers were made to look like the Teutul family from Orange County Choppers. These are the first dispensers to have been made in the actual likeness of living people.


The NASCAR-themed dispensers are based on the helmets of famous drivers, rather than their actual likenesses.


In 2007, a limited edition Elvis set was released featuring three dispensers from different time periods in Presley's life.


In 2008, the first Star Trek dispensers were released in a gift set with the seven original series crew and the Starship Enterprise. A second Star Trek gift set, based on The Next Generation series, was released in Fall 2012.


In 2009, in honor of the 70th anniversary of The Wizard of Oz, Pez released a boxed set with dispensers in the likenesses of the following characters: the Cowardly Lion, the Tin Man, the Scarecrow, Dorothy Gale, Toto, Glinda, the Wizard of Oz, and the Wicked Witch of the West.[citation needed] Only 300,000 sets were made.


In 2010, Pez released a Snow White and the seven dwarfs set, featuring a story book. These are the first characters featured on the "Short Stem" body. Only 250,000 sets were made.


In 2011, a two-piece limited edition set was released for charity, featuring Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and his wife-to-be, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.


In 2011, an eight-piece limited edition set was released featuring characters from The Lord of the Rings as they appear in Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings films: Bilbo, Frodo, Sam, Gandalf, Aragorn, Legolas, Gimli, and Gollum. Only 250,000 sets were made. 150,000 Walmart-exclusive sets were made. The Walmart sets did not have Bilbo. Instead, they came with the Eye of Sauron. A Hobbit gift set was released in September, 2013.


In October 2012, Pez released a limited edition KISS gift set. The Starchild, The Demon, The Catman, and The Spaceman are displayed in a reusable metal gift tin.


Value of Pez dispensers


Some Pez dispensers can sell for large amounts as collectibles. The highest verifiable sale of a Pez dispenser was a private sale of a Mickey Mouse softhead at $7,000 between an Austrian dealer and a US collector. This dispenser was never available for sale to the public, and was a factory prototype. The high prices which some Pez items fetch has led to the manufacturing of fake Pez items as well. The 2006 eBay sale of a clear 50s Space Gun for $11,000 took place, but according to Pez researcher David Welch, the dispenser was later proven by chemical testing to be a well-made fake. The most valuable Pez dispensers are three Political Donkeys, each valued at over $13,000, one of which was owned by JFK.

Pez conventions


The Pez collecting hobby has grown to the point where several conventions are held annually around the world. The oldest convention is Pez-a-Mania, which has been held in Ohio since 1991. Conventions are also annually held in Austria, Finland, France, Sweden, and in the U.S. in Missouri, California, Minnesota, Connecticut, and South Carolina. Pez conventions are a place where collectors and dealers can meet to buy and sell Pez merchandise.[6] There are also typically auctions for charity and games and contests with Pez items as prizes.

Film Adaptation


Envision Media Arts are developing an animated film version of Pez with Cameron Fay writing a screenplay, Lee Nelson & David Buelow producing and Gregg Rossen, Brian Sawyer & Jonathan Hung executive producing the film.[7]

See also

Burlingame Museum of Pez Memorabilia

Pez Card Game




"About Us". Pez. Retrieved 2009-05-13.

"Bleach: 02 The Substitute". Game Vortex. Retrieved 2014-09-04.

"History of Pez, Inc. – FundingUniverse". Retrieved 2015-04-04.

Welch, David (September 1994). Collecting Pez. Bubba Scrubba Publ. p. 2. ISBN 0-9644956-0-0.

Welch, David (September 1994). Collecting Pez. Bubba Scrubba Publ. p. 290. ISBN 0-9644956-0-0.

"John LaSpina, of Middletown, N.J., shows off one of his favorite... Photo-photo.85098 - StamfordAdvocate". StamfordAdvocate. Retrieved 2015-04-04.

Khatchatourian, Maane (August 3, 2015). "Pez Animated Movie in the Works". Variety.


Further reading

Geary, Richard, More Pez for Collectors, Schiffer Publishing; 3 edition (October 1, 1999). ISBN 978-0-7643-0994-6

Peterson, Shawn (2007). Shawn Peterson Collectors guide to Pez. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-89689-635-2.

Chertoff, Nina; Kahn, Susan (2006). Celebrating PEZ. Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-4227-9.


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pez.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pez

Official website

Tropez collectors database for Windows

Online database of PEZ dispensers and items

CNNMoney: Every piece of Pez is made here (video)



Food companies of Austria1927 introductions Companies based in Vienna Companies based in New Haven County, Connecticut Brand name confectionery.

Gummy bear

"Gummi bears" redirects here. For the Disney animated series, see Gummi Bears.

Gummy bear Gummy bears.jpg

Haribo gummy bears, the first gummy bears ever made

Type      Gummi

Place of origin    Germany

Creator                 Hans Riegel Sr.

Main ingredients Gelatin, sugar, glucose syrup, starch, flavoring, food coloring, citric acid

Cookbook: Gummy bear  Media: Gummy bear

A gummy bear (German: Gummibärchen) is a small, fruit gum, similar to a jelly baby in some English-speaking countries. It is roughly 2 cm (0.8 in) long and shaped in the form of a bear. The gummy bear is one of many gummies, popular gelatin-based candies sold in a variety of shapes and colors.




    1 History

    2 Variations and flavors

    3 Ingredients and production

    4 Health issues

    5 See also

    6 References

    7 External links



The gummy bear originated in Germany, where it is popular under the name About this sound Gummibär (help·info) (gum or gummy bear) or in the endearing form About this sound Gummibärchen (help·info) ([little] gum or gummy bear), gum arabic was the original base ingredient used to produce the gummy bears, hence the name gum or gummy. Hans Riegel, Sr., a confectioner from Bonn, started the Haribo company in 1920. In 1922, inspired by the trained bears seen at street festivities and markets in Europe through to the 19th century, he invented the Dancing Bear (Tanzbär), a small, affordable, fruit-flavored gum treat for children and adults alike, which was much larger in form than its later successor, the Gold-Bear (Goldbär).[1] Even during Weimar Germany's hyperinflation period that wreaked havoc on the country, Haribo's fruit-gum Dancing Bear treats remained affordably priced for a mere 1 Pfennig, in pairs, at kiosks.[1] The success of the Dancing Bear's successor would later become Haribo's world-famous Gold-Bears product in 1967.[1]

Variations and flavors

The success of gummi bears has spawned the production of many other gummy candies that look like animals and other objects: rings, worms, frogs, snakes, hamburgers, cherries, sharks, penguins, hippos, lobsters, octopuses, apples, peaches, oranges, and even Ampelmännchen, Smurfs, and spiders. Manufacturers offer sizes from the standard size. Close-up of a Haribo gummy bear.

In the United States, Haribo gummy bears are sold in five flavors: raspberry (red); orange (orange); strawberry (green); pineapple (colorless); and lemon (yellow).[3] Trolli's bears are similarly most often sold in five flavors in the United States, and in the same colors; however, Trolli's red bear is strawberry-flavored, while the green is lime and the colorless is grape.[4] Many companies emulate either Haribo or Trolli flavor-color combinations. Health-oriented brands, which often use all-natural flavors, sometimes opt for more and different flavors. For example, the boxed bulk gummis sold by Sunflower/Newflower Markets include grape, pineapple-coconut, and peach, among others.

Ingredients and production

Vending machine for kosher gummy bears at the cafeteria of the Jewish Museum Berlin


The traditional gummy bear is made from a mixture of sugar, glucose syrup, starch, flavoring, food coloring, citric acid, and gelatin. However, recipes vary, such as organic, those suitable for vegetarians, or those following religious dietary laws.


A specialized machine called a starch mogul. The image of the gummy bear is stamped into a tray filled with powdered starch. The hot, liquid mixture is poured into the indentations in the starch and allowed to cool overnight. Once the mixture has set, the candies can be removed from the mold and packaged.[5] The molds are open on top, so only the bear's front is formed while the back remains flat. The original design for each type is carved into plaster by an artist, then duplicated by a machine and used to create the starch molds for the production line.[5]


Gummy bears made with bovine, porcine or piscine gelatin are not suitable for vegetarians and vegans. Those with porcine gelatin also do not conform to kashrut or halal dietary laws. In its factory in Turkey, Haribo produces halal bears and other sweets which are made with bovine gelatin.[3] Also, some gummy bears are made with pectin or starch instead of gelatin, making them suitable for vegetarians.


Large sour gummy bears are larger and flatter than regular ones, have a softer texture, and include fumaric acid or other acid ingredients to produce a sour flavor. Some manufacturers produce sour bears with a different texture, based on starch instead of gelatin. Typically, starch produces a shorter (cleaner bite, less chewy) texture than gelatin.

Health issues

Haribo Goldbear gummy bears Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 1,459 kJ (349 kcal)


77 g

Sugars   46 g


0 g


6.9 g


μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams

IU = International units


Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.


Gummy bears ordinarily contain mostly empty calories, but recently gummy bears containing vitamin C, produced by manufacturers such as Sconza or Bear Essentials,[6] are being marketed to parents of young children. Multivitamins have also been produced in the form of gummi bears to motivate consumption by young, picky eaters.


Gummy bears, and other gummis, stick to teeth and may cause tooth decay.[7] However, gummi bears containing the cavity-fighting additive xylitol (wood sugar) are now being tested.[8] Trolli has developed a line of gummi which is claimed to help the immune system and teeth; the acti-line.[9]


There has been concern that gelatin in most gummy bears may harbor prions, particularly those that cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans.[10] Based on studies, the United States FDA and other national organizations and countries consider the risk of BSE transmission through gelatin to be miniscule as long as precautions are followed during manufacturing.[11][12][13][14][15]

See also

I Am Your Gummy Bear (album)

"I Am Your Gummy Bear (The Gummy Bear Song)"

Disney's Adventures of the Gummi Bears

Turkish Delight



1922 – The DANCING BEAR is born

"World's largest Gummy Bear goes on sale". September 22, 2009.

"Haribo official FAQ".

"Trolli Classic Bears". Trolli.

"Food Editorials". Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"Product Detail: Bear Essentials – Multi Vitamin Gummi Bears". 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"Family Dental, Family Dental Plan, Family Dental Insurance". Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"Want To Fight Cavities? Eat Gummi Bears! | KOMO-TV - Seattle, Washington | News Archive". Komo-Tv. Retrieved 2013-05-21. (2009-01-10). ""Zahnpflege mit Fruchtgummibären - Trolli Actident" Testbericht". Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"Gelatin production and Prion Theory". Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"USDA Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-21.

"World Health Organization" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-21.

FDA[dead link]

"Australian Government DHA". 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-05-21.

Asian Food Information center [dead link]


For this dessert food, see Gelatin dessert.

'Sheet' or 'leaf' gelatin for cooking


Gelatin or gelatine (from Latin: gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colourless, brittle (when dry), flavourless foodstuff, derived from collagen obtained from various animal by-products. It is commonly used as a gelling agent in food, pharmaceuticals, photography, and cosmetic manufacturing. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are called gelatinous. Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen. It is found in most gummy as well as other products such as marshmallows, gelatin dessert, and some ice cream, dip and yogurt. Household gelatin comes in the form of sheets, granules, or powder. Instant types can be added to the food as they are; others need to be soaked in water beforehand.




   1 Composition and properties

   2 Production

   2.1 Pretreatments

   2.2 Extraction

   2.3 Recovery

   3 Uses

   3.1 Culinary uses

    3.2 Technical uses

    3.3 Other uses

    4 Dietary restrictions and gelatin substitutes

    5 Medical and nutritional properties

    6 Safety concerns

    7 References

    8 External links


Composition and properties


Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin, bones, and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken, pigs, horses and fish. During hydrolysis, the natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily. Its chemical composition is, in many respects, closely similar to that of its parent collagen.[1] Photographic and pharmaceutical grades of gelatin are generally sourced from beef bones and pig skin.


Gelatin readily dissolves in hot water, and sets to a gel on cooling. Gelatin added directly to cold water does not dissolve well. Gelatin is also soluble in most polar solvents. Gelatin solutions show viscoelastic flow and streaming birefringence. The solubility of the gelatin is determined by the method of manufacture. Typically, gelatin can be dispersed in a relatively concentrated acid. Such dispersions are stable for 10–15 days with little or no chemical changes and are suitable for coating purposes or for extrusion into a precipitating bath.[citation needed]


The mechanical properties of gelatin gels are very sensitive to temperature variations, the previous thermal history of the gel, and time. These gels exist over only a small temperature range, the upper limit being the melting point of the gel, which depends on gelatin grade and concentration (but is typically less than 35 °C) and the lower limit the freezing point at which ice crystallizes. The upper melting point is below human body temperature, a factor which is important for mouthfeel of foods produced with gelatin.[2] The viscosity of the gelatin/water mixture is greatest when the gelatin concentration is high and the mixture is kept cool (≈ 4 °C). The gel strength is quantified using the Bloom test.


Materials Used in Gelatin Production.svg

Gelatin Production by Geography.svg


The worldwide production amount of gelatin is about 375,000 metric tons per year (roughly 827 million lb).[citation needed] On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather industry. Recently, fish by-products have also been considered because they eliminate some of the religious obstacles surrounding gelatin consumption.[2] Gelatin is derived from pork skins, pork, horses, and cattle bones, or split cattle hides.[3] The raw materials are prepared by different curing, acid, and alkali processes which are employed to extract the dried collagen hydrolysate. These processes[4] may take up to several weeks, and differences in such processes have great effects on the properties of the final gelatin products.[5]


Gelatin can also be prepared in the home. Boiling certain cartilaginous cuts of meat or bones will result in gelatin being dissolved into the water. Depending on the concentration, the resulting stock (when cooled) will naturally form a jelly or gel. This process is used for aspic.


While there are many processes whereby collagen can be converted to gelatin, they all have several factors in common. The intermolecular and intramolecular bonds which stabilize insoluble collagen must be broken, and the hydrogen bonds which stabilize the collagen helix must also be broken.[1] The manufacturing processes of gelatin consists of three main stages:


Pretreatments to make the raw materials ready for the main extraction step and to remove impurities which may have negative effects on physio chemical properties of the final gelatin product,

The main extraction step, which is usually done with hot water or dilute acid solutions as a multi-stage extraction to hydrolyze collagen into gelatin, and finally,

The refining and recovering treatments including filtration, clarification, evaporation, sterilization, drying, rutting, grinding, and sifting to remove the water from the gelatin solution, to blend the gelatin extracted, and to obtain dried, blended and ground final product.




If the raw material used in the production of the gelatin is derived from bones, dilute acid solutions are used to remove calcium and other salts. Hot water or several solvents may be used in order to reduce the fat content, which should not exceed 1% before the main extraction step. If the raw material consists of hides and skin; size reduction, washing, removal of hair from hides and de-greasing are necessary to prepare the hides and skins for the main extraction step.


Collagen hydrolysis is performed by one of three different methods: acid-, alkali-, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid treatment is especially suitable for less fully crosslinked materials such as pig skin collagen and normally requires 10 to 48 hours. Alkali treatment is suitable for more complex collagen such as the collagen found in bovine hides and requires more time, normally several weeks. The purpose of the alkali treatment is to destroy certain chemical crosslinkages still present in collagen. Within the gelatin industry, the gelatin obtained from acid-treated raw material has been called type-A gelatin and the gelatin obtained from alkali-treated raw material is referred to as type-B gelatin.[6]


Enzymatic hydrolysis of collagen for gelatin extraction is relatively new.[vague] However, the treatment time is shorter than that required for alkali treatment, and results in almost complete conversion to the pure product. The physical properties of the final gelatin product are better.[according to whom?]



After preparation of the raw cool material, i.e., reducing crosslinkages between collagen components and removing some of the impurities such as fat and salts, partially purified collagen is converted into gelatin by extraction with either water or acid solutions at appropriate temperatures. All industrial processes are based on neutral or acid pH values because though alkali treatments speed up conversion, they also promote degradation processes. Acidic extraction conditions are extensively used in the industry but the degree of acid varies with different processes. This extraction step is a multistage process, and the extraction temperature is usually increased in later extraction steps. This procedure ensures the minimum thermal degradation of the extracted gelatin.



This process includes several steps such as filtration, evaporation, drying, grinding, and sifting. These operations are concentration-dependent and also dependent on the particular gelatin used. Gelatin degradation should be avoided and minimized, therefore the lowest temperature possible is used for the recovery process. Most recoveries are rapid, with all of the processes being done in several stages to avoid extensive deterioration of the peptide structure. A deteriorated peptide structure would result in a low gelling strength, which is not generally desired.


Culinary uses

Eggs in aspic


Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and non-food products: Common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, corn, and confections such as Peeps, gummy bears, fruit snacks, and jelly babies. Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouthfeel of fat and to create volume without adding calories. Gelatin is also used in the production of several types of Chinese soup dumplings, specifically Shanghainese soup dumplings, or "Xiaolongbao" as well as "Shengjian mantou," a type of fried and steamed dumpling. The fillings of both are made by combining ground pork with gelatin cubes, and in the process of cooking, the gelatin melts, creating a soupy interior with a characteristic gelatinous stickiness.


Gelatin is used for the clarification of juices, such as apple juice, and of vinegar. Isinglass, from the swim bladders of fish, is still used as a fining agent for wine and beer.[7] Beside hartshorn jelly, from deer antlers (hence the name "hartshorn"), isinglass was one of the oldest sources of gelatin.[8]

Technical uses

Capsules made of gelatin.

Certain professional and theatrical lighting equipment use colour gels to change the beam colour. These were historically made with gelatin, hence the term colour gel.

Gelatin typically constitutes the shells of pharmaceutical capsules in order to make them easier to swallow. Hypromellose is a vegetarian-acceptable alternative to gelatin, but is more expensive to produce.

Animal glues such as hide glue are essentially unrefined gelatin.

It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an emulsion in virtually all photographic films and photographic papers. Despite some efforts, no suitable substitutes with the stability and low cost of gelatin have been found.

Used as a carrier, coating or separating agent for other substances; for example, it makes beta-carotene water-soluble thus imparting a yellow colour to any soft drinks containing beta-carotene.

Gelatin is closely related to bone glue and is used as a binder in match heads and sandpaper.

Cosmetics may contain a non-gelling variant of gelatin under the name hydrolyzed collagen.

Gelatin was first used as an external surface sizing for paper in 1337 and continued as a dominant sizing agent of all European papers through the mid-19th century.[9] In modern times it occasionally found in some glossy printing papers, artistic papers, playing cards, and it maintains the wrinkles in crêpe paper.

Other uses

Blocks of ballistic gelatin simulate muscle tissue as a standardized medium for testing firearms ammunition.

Gelatin is used by synchronized swimmers to hold their hair in place during their routines as it will not dissolve in the cold water of the pool. It is frequently referred to as "knoxing," a reference to Knox brand gelatin.[10]

When added to boiling water and cooled, unflavored gelatin can make a home-made hair styling gel that is cheaper than many commercial hair styling products, but by comparison has a shorter shelf life (about a week) when stored in this form (usually in a refrigerator). After being applied to scalp hair, it can be removed with rinsing and some shampoo.

It is commonly used as a biological substrate to culture adherent cells.

It may be used by those who are sensitive to tannins (which can irritate the stomach) in teas, soups or brews.

 It may be used as a medium with which to consume LSD. LSD in gelatin form is known as "windowpane" or "geltabs."

Gelatin is used to make the shells of paintballs, similar to the way pharmaceutical capsules are produced.

Gelatin is used as an ingredient in implantable medical devices, such as in some bone void fillers.

Gelatin is used in nail polish remover and makeup applications. The gelatin is often tinted in different colours to match a model's natural skin tone.

Leaf or sheet gelatin is used directly in food-based model-making, for example to make translucent, edible, diamond-paned windows in gingerbread houses.[11]

Gelatin can be used as a binding agent in india ink.


Gelatin may be used as a technique within the process of fine art printmaking. The prints are made by creating a block of gelatin and applying printing inks. The gelatin is made using twice the normal amount of gelatin granules to the usual amount of water. Once set - printmaking ink (usually water based) is applied to its surface. Other water based media may also be applied. Items such as dried grass, leaves and paper stencils are placed onto the inked surface. Gelatin monotype is best done with the use of medium to lightweight paper. This is gently pressed onto the inked plate once the 'design' has been composed.

Dietary restrictions and gelatin substitutes


The consumption of gelatin from particular animals may be forbidden by religious or cultural rules. For example, Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal customs require gelatin from sources other than pigs, like cows and/or fish and from animals slaughtered ritually. Romani people are cautious of gelatin products that may have been made from horses, as their culture forbids the consumption of horses. There are companies that specify the source of the gelatin used. Vegans and many vegetarians choose not to eat foods containing gelatin made from animals. Likewise, Hindu & Jain customs may require gelatin alternatives from sources other than animals, as many Hindus are vegetarian. Hindus who are not vegetarians will often consume gelatin from all sources except cow, which is considered sacred. However, since many people are not aware about gelatin and its sources, they unknowingly consume it. Other people simply consider gelatin unpalatable due to the ingredients used in its production.


Partial, non-animal alternatives to gelatin include the seaweed extracts agar and carrageenan, as well as pectin and konjac. Research into synthetic collagen is ongoing, as of 2011 partial success has been achieved in replicating collagen's structure using self-assembling peptides.[12]

Medical and nutritional properties

Amino acid composition


Although gelatin is 98-99% protein by dry weight, it has less nutritional value than many other complete protein sources. Gelatin is unusually high in the non-essential amino acids glycine and proline (i.e., those produced by the human body), while lacking certain essential amino acids (i.e., those not produced by the human body). It contains no tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine, threonine, and methionine. The approximate amino acid composition of gelatin is: glycine 21%, proline 12%, hydroxyproline 12%, glutamic acid 10%, alanine 9%, arginine 8%, aspartic acid 6%, lysine 4%, serine 4%, leucine 3%, valine 2%, phenylalanine 2%, threonine 2%, isoleucine 1%, hydroxylysine 1%, methionine and histidine <1% and tyrosine <0.5%. These values vary, especially the minor constituents, depending on the source of the raw material and processing technique.[13]


Gelatin is also a topical haemostatic. A piece of gelatin sponge of appropriate size is applied on bleeding wound, pressed for some time and tied in bandage. Haemostatic action is based on platelets damage at the contact of blood with gelatin, which activates the coagulation cascade. Gelatin also causes a tamponading effect - blood flow stoppage into a blood vessel by a constriction of the vessel by an outside force.[14]


Scientific publications give evidence that consumption of oral gelatin has beneficial effect for some fingernail changes and diseases.[15][16][17][18]

Safety concerns


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), with support from the TSE (Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) Advisory Committee, has since 1997 been monitoring the potential risk of transmitting animal diseases, especially bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as Mad Cow disease. The FDA study concluded: "...steps such as heat, alkaline treatment, and filtration could be effective in reducing the level of contaminating TSE agents; however, scientific evidence is insufficient at this time to demonstrate that these treatments would effectively remove the BSE infectious agent if present in the source material."[19]


The Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Union (EU) in 2003 stated that the risk associated with bovine bone gelatin is very low or zero.[20][21] In 2006 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) stated that the SSC opinion was confirmed, that the BSE risk of bone-derived gelatin was very small, and removed support for the 2003 request of excluding the skull and vertebrae of bovine origin older than 12 months from the material used in gelatin manufacturing.[22]


All reputable gelatin manufacturers today follow the Quality Management System according to ISO 9001. In this way all process steps are documented. For pharmaceutical grade gelatins strict regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European CPMP's regulation and European Pharmacopoeia must be met. A detailed overview of the regulatory requirements for gelatin production can be found in the Gelatine Handbook, pp. 99–101.[23]



Ward, A.G.; Courts, A. (1977). The Science and Technology of Gelatin. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-735050-0.

Cole, CGB (2000), "Gelatin", in Francis, FJ, Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 1183–1188

"Gelatine information, news, history and more". Gelatine Manufacturers Institute of America. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-26.

" Gelatin, Hydrolyzed collagen. Properties, processes, applications in the confectionnery, dairy, pharmaceutical. Now is mostly used from plants industries". ROUSSELOT. Retrieved 2008-07-15.

"". GELITA Group. Retrieved 2006-12-04.

"Type A & B Process Definition". Vyse Gelatin Company. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2014.

"National Organic Standards Board Technical Advisory Panel Review: Gelatin processing" (PDF).

Jelly, Flummery and Creams

Thurn, Jim. "History, Chemistry, and Long Term Effects of Alum-Rosin Size in Paper".

"2008 United States Olympic Synchronized Swimming Team" (PDF).

"Gingerbread House Windows".

"New Method to Grow Synthetic Collagen Unveiled: New Material May Find Use in Reconstructive Surgery, Cosmetics, Tissue Engineering".

Stevens, P.V. (1992). "Unknown". Food Australia 44 (7): 320–324. Retrieved 2005-08-11.

Денисенко, Петр Прокофьевич (2003). Современные лекарственные средства: Клинико-фармакологический справочник, Петр Прокофьевич Денисенко. ISBN 978-5-7654-2738-5.[page needed]

Mulinos, M. G.; Kadison, E. D. (1965). "Effect of Gelatin on the Vascularity of the Finger". Angiology 16 (4): 170. doi:10.1177/000331976501600403.

Blank, Irvin H; Miller, Owen G (1950). "A Method for the Separation of the Epidermis from the Dermis1". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology 15 (1): 9–10. doi:10.1038/jid.1950.4. PMID 14774568.

Michelson, Joseph N.; Huntsman, David J. (May 2, 1963). "New Aspects Of The Effects Of Gelatin On Fingernails". Journal of the Society of Cosmetics Chemists: 443–54.

Jank, M (1968). "Gelatin therapy in onychomycoses". Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift (1946) 118 (8): 154–6. PMID 4235220.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "The Sourcing and Processing of Gelatin to Reduce the Potential Risk Posed by Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in FDA-Regulated Products for Human Use".

The Scientific Steering Committee (6–7 March 2003). "Updated Opinion On The Safety With Regard To TSE Risks Of Gelatine Derived From Ruminant Bones or Hides" (PDF).

Gelatine Manufacturers of Europe (GME) (June 2003). "The Removal and Inactivation of Potential TSE Infectivity by the Different Gelatin Manufacturing Processes" (PDF).

Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (18 January 2006). "Quantitative assessment of the human BSE risk posed by gelatine with respect to residual BSE risk" (PDF).

Herbert Gareis; Reinhard Schrieber (2007). Gelatine Handbook: Theory and Industrial Practice. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-31548-9.


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