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Marmalade

 

This article is about the fruit preserve. For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation).

 

Not to be confused with the Haitian commune of Marmelade.

Marmalade

Homemade marmalade, England.jpg

Homemade English marmalade

Type

Fruit preserve

Place of origin

Great Britain

Main ingredients

Juice and peel of citrus fruits, sugar, water

Cookbook: Marmalade   Media: Marmalade

 

Marmalade nowadays generally refers to a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water, especially in Britain. It can be produced from kumquats, lemons, limes, grapefruits, mandarins, sweet oranges, bergamots and other citrus fruits, or any combination thereof.

 

For many decades now, the preferred citrus fruit for marmalade production in Britain has been the Spanish Seville orange, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, prized for its high pectin content, which gives a good set. The peel imparts a lively bitter taste to the marmalade.

 

The term "marmalade" is not precise, universal, nor definitive, but unless otherwise stated, marmalade is generally distinguished from jam by its fruit peel. However, it also may be distinguished from jam by the choice of fruit. Historically, as mentioned hereinafter, the term was used more often in other senses than just citrus conserves.[1]

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Origins

2 Etymology 2.1 International usage

3 Dundee Marmalade 3.1 Scots legend

4 In children's books

5 See also

6 References

7 Further reading

 

 

Origins[edit]

 

The Romans learned from the Greeks that quinces slowly cooked with honey would "set" when cool (though they did not know about fruit pectin). Greek μελίμηλον (melimēlon, "honey fruit") transformed into Portuguese "marmelo"—for in Greek μῆλον (mēlon, "apple") stood for all globular fruits, and most quinces are too astringent to be used without honey. A Roman cookbook attributed to Apicius gives a recipe for preserving whole quinces, stems and leaves attached, in a bath of honey diluted with defrutum—Roman marmalade. Preserves of quince and lemon appear—along with rose, apple, plum and pear—in the Book of ceremonies of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, "a book that is not only a treatise on the etiquette of imperial banquetting in the ninth century, but a catalogue of the foods available and dishes made from them."[1]

 

Medieval quince preserves, which went by the French name cotignac, produced in a clear version and a fruit pulp version, began to lose their medieval seasoning of spices in the 16th century. In the 17th century, La Varenne provided recipes for both thick and clear cotignac.[2]

 

In 1524, Henry VIII received a "box of marmalade" from Mr Hull of Exeter.[3] As it was in a box, this was probably marmelada, a solid quince paste from Portugal, still made and sold in southern Europe. Its Portuguese origins can be detected in the remarks in letters to Lord Lisle, from William Grett, 12 May 1534, "I have sent to your lordship a box of marmaladoo, and another unto my good lady your wife" and from Richard Lee, 14 December 1536, "He most heartily thanketh her Ladyship for her marmalado".[2]

 

The English recipe book of Eliza Cholmondeley, dated from 1677 and held at the Chester Record Office in the Cheshire county archivists, has one of the earliest marmalade recipes ("Marmelet of Oranges") which produced a firm, thick dark paste. The Scots are credited with developing marmalade as a spread, with Scottish recipes in the 18th century using more water to produce a less solid preserve.[4]

 

The first printed recipe for orange marmalade, though without the chunks typically used now, was in Mary Kettilby's 1714 cookery book, A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts (pages 78–79).[5][6][7] Kettilby called for whole oranges, lemon juice and sugar, with the acid in the lemon juice helping to create the pectin set of marmalade, by boiling the lemon and orange juice with the pulp.[4][7] Kettilby then directs: "boil the whole pretty fast 'till it will jelly" – the first known use of the word "jelly" in marmalade making. Kettilby then instructs that the mixture is then poured into glasses, covered and left until set. As the acid would create a jelly, this meant that the mixture could be pulled from the heat before it had turned to a paste, keeping the marmalade much brighter and the appearance more translucent, as in modern-day marmalade.[4]

 

The Scots moved marmalade to the breakfast table, and in the 19th century the English followed the Scottish example and abandoned the eating of marmalade in the evening. Marmalade's place in British life appears in literature. James Boswell remarks that he and Samuel Johnson were offered it at breakfast in Scotland in 1773. When American writer Louisa May Alcott visited Britain in the 1800s, she described "a choice pot of marmalade and a slice of cold ham" as "essentials of English table comfort".[7]

 

Etymology[edit]

Antique marmalade cutter, used to cut citrus fruit peel into thin slices

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "marmalade" appeared in the English language in 1480, borrowed from French marmelade which, in turn, came from the Portuguese language marmelada. According to José Pedro Machado’s Dicionário Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa,[8] the oldest known document where this Portuguese word is to be found is Gil Vicente’s play Comédia de Rubena, written in 1521:

Temos tanta marmeladaQue a minha mãe vai me dar um pouco[9]

The extension of "marmalade" in the English language to refer to a preserve made from citrus fruits occurred in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common.

 

In Portuguese, according to the root of the word, which is marmelo, "quince", marmelada is a preserve made from quinces, quince cheese. Marmelo in turn derives from Latin melimelum, "honey apple",[10] which in turn comes from the earlier Greek μελίμηλον (melímēlon),[11] from "μέλι" (meli), "honey"[11] + "μήλον" (mēlon), "apple".[11]

 

there is an apocryphal story that Mary, Queen of Scots, ate it when she had a headache, and that the name is derived from her maids' whisper of "Marie est malade" (Mary is ill). In reality, the word's origin has nothing to do with Mary.[12]

 

International usage[edit]

 

Marmalade spread on bread

In much of Europe, the term "marmalade" and its variations is still used as a generic term, whereas in Britain it has been redefined solely to a citrus preserve.[4] The name originates in Portuguese, where marmelada applies exclusively to quince jam.[13][14] In Spanish the term usually refers to what in English is called jam (and jalea—used in Mexico and Central America—is similar to the American English jelly). In Italian too, marmellata means every jam and marmalade.

 

Dundee Marmalade[edit]

Jars of homemade marmalade

The Scottish city of Dundee has a long association with marmalade.[15][16] James Keiller and his wife Janet ran a small sweet and preserves shop in the Seagate section of Dundee.[16] In 1797, they opened a factory to produce "Dundee Marmalade",[17] a preserve distinguished by thick chunks of bitter Seville orange rind. The business prospered, and remains a signature marmalade producer today.[18]

 

Scots legend[edit]

 

According to a Scottish legend, the creation of orange marmalade in Britain occurred by accident. The legend tells of a ship carrying a cargo of oranges that broke down in the port of Dundee, resulting in some ingenious locals making marmalade out of the cargo.[16][19]

 

In children's books[edit]

 

Paddington Bear, a fictional character in children's books, is renowned for his particular liking for marmalade, particularly in sandwiches.[20]

See also[edit]

Fruit preserves

Keiller's marmalade

Succade

Zest

Yujacha (Yuzu Marmalade)

 

References[edit]

 

1.^  to: a b Maguelonne -Samat, (Anthea Bell, tr.) A History of Food 2nd ed. 2009, p. 507

2.^  to: a b C. Anne Wilson, The Book of Marmalade: its Antecedents, Its History, and Its Role in the World Today, revised ed., 1999, p.32 & others

3. ^ Public Record Office, Letters and Papers, Foreign & Domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII, vol. VI (1870) p.339, noted by Wilson 1999, p. 31f, and by other writers.

4.^  to: a b c d Diana Henry (2012). "Salt Sugar Smoke: How to preserve fruit, vegetables, meat and fish". Hachette UK,

5. ^ Bateman, Michael (3 January 1993). "Hail marmalade, great chieftain o' the jammy race: Mrs Keiller of Dundee added chunks in the 1790s, thus finally defining a uniquely British gift to gastronomy". The Independent. Retrieved 15 February 2016.

6. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (2010). The Book of Marmalade (2nd ed.). Prospect Books. (cited in The Independent)

7.^  to: a b c "Spread over centuries" (19 August 2003). The Age. 8 June 2015.

8. ^ "Etymological Dictionary of the Portuguese Language"

9. ^ Translation: We have so much quince jelly/ That my mother will give me some. Maria João Amaral, ed. Gil Vicente, Rubena (Lisbon:Quimera) 1961 (e-book)

10. ^ Klein’s Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language

11.^  to: a b c Melimelon, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library

12. ^ "World Wide Words: Marmalade". World Wide Words. Retrieved 2016-07-13.

13. ^ Wilson, C. Anne. The Book of Marmalade: Its Antecedents, Its History and Its Role in the World Today (Together with a Collection of Recipes for Marmalades and Marmalade Cookery), University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Revised Edition 1999. ISBN 0-8122-1727-6

14. ^ "Marmalade" in Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2001 Douglas Harper apud Dictionary.com

15. ^ "Account Suspended". greatbritishkitchen.co.uk.

16.^  to: a b c "Features - Scottish Food, Traditions and Customs - Dundee Marmalade". scotsindependent.org.

17. ^ "James Keiller & Son Dundee Marmalade, Orange". wegmans.com.

18. ^ W.M. Matthew, The Keiller Dynasty 1800-1879 narrates the history of Keillers; BBC News "Legacies: Keiller's: Sticky Success": offers an abbreviated version.

19. ^ C. Anne Wilson, The Book of Marmalade. Constable, London. 1985. ISBN 0-09-465670-3.

20. ^ "Paddington: My Book of Marmalade: Amazon.co.uk: Michael Bond, Peggy Fortnum: 9780007269464: Books". amazon.co.uk.

 

 

 

Tomato purée

 

A spoonful of tomato purée

Tomato purée is a thick liquid made by cooking and straining tomatoes.[1] The difference between tomato paste, tomato purée, and tomato sauce is consistency, tomato puree has a thicker consistency and a deeper flavour.[2][3]

 

The definitions of tomato purée vary from country to country. In the U.S., tomato purée is a processed food product, usually consisting of only tomatoes, but can also be found in seasoned form. It differs from tomato sauce or tomato paste in consistency and content; tomato purée generally lacks the additives common to a complete tomato sauce, and does not have the thickness of paste.[4]

 

To prepare tomato purée, ripe tomatoes are washed and the leaves and stem are removed. Some processors remove the skin of the tomato as well. The fruit flesh is then mashed or mechanically chopped to the desired consistency.

 

Tomato purée can be used in soups, stews, sauces, or any other dish where the tomato flavor is desired, but not the texture. It is less often used by professional chefs, who find it to have an overly cooked flavor compared to other forms of canned tomatoes. This is sometimes a non-issue, as in long-cooked dishes, but in quick sauces such as a marinara sauce it is undesirable.

 

Tomato purée has approx 14% solids content. Lower solids content is due to filtering, higher content is due to concentration of the product.

 

Tomato purée is never referred as "passata di pomodoro", when it has been sieved to remove seeds and lumps. Passata's main difference is that it is not cooked. In this form, it is generally sold in bottles or aseptic packaging, and is most common in Europe. In the United Kingdom, in this form the product passata is always uncooked, otherwise it would be tomato puree (see above).

 

See also[edit]

List of tomato dishes

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ Bev Bennett 30-Minute Meals For Dummies- 2011 "Tomato puree is a thick liquid made by cooking and straining tomatoes. "

2. ^ Barbara Ann Kipfer The Culinarian: A Kitchen Desk Reference 2012 Page 561 The differences between tomato paste, tomato purée, and tomato sauce are texture and depth of flavor (the thicker the consistency, the deeper the flavor)."

3. ^ Sudheer, K.P. & V.Indira, Post Harvest Technology of Horticultural Crops: Vol.07. 2007 ... - Page 163 "The product is very similar to tomato puree except that the solid concentration is more. Tomato paste is the product obtained by removal of peel and seeds from tomatoes, followed by concentration of juice by evaporation under vacuum."

4. ^ President's list of articles which may be designated or modified ... United States International Trade Commission - 1990 - Numéro 6 - Page 2 "Tomato paste, which is generally more concentrated than puree, is used as a substitute for fresh or canned tomatoes in the preparation of dishes such as spaghetti, pizza, and pork and beans, as well as for sauces and ketchup. Tomato puree ..."

 

 

Turrón

 

This article is about the Valencian confection. For the Filipino banana spring roll, see Turon (food).

Turrón

Turrón de Alicante (Casa Mira).jpg

Turrón of Alicante type

Alternative names

Torró, torrone, torrão, turon, turrone, nougat

Type

Confectionery

 

Main ingredients

Honey, sugar, egg whites, almonds or other nuts

Cookbook: Turrón   Media: Turrón

 

Turrón (Spanish: [tuˈron]), torró (Catalan: [tuˈro], [toˈro]), torrone (Italian: [torˈrone], Brazilian Portuguese: [toˈʁoni]), turrone (Sardinian: [turˈrone]), torrão (European Portuguese: [tuˈʁɐ̃w]), turon (Tagalog: [tuˈɾon]) or nougat is a confection, typically made of honey, sugar, and egg white, with toasted almonds or other nuts, and usually shaped into either a rectangular tablet or a round cake. It is frequently consumed as a traditional Christmas dessert in Spain as well as countries formerly under the Spanish empire, particularly in Latin America.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Recipe

2 History

3 Types 3.1 Spanish turrón

3.2 Italian torrone

3.3 Peruvian turrón

3.4 Philippine turrón

3.5 Puerto Rican turrón

3.6 Cuban turrón

4 Protected status

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

 

 

Recipe[edit]

 

The 16th-century Manual de Mujeres (Women's handbook), a handbook of recipes for cosmetics and some foodstuffs, has what is probably the oldest extant Spanish turrón recipe.[1] It calls for honey and some egg whites, cooked until it becomes breakable once cooled. Once the honey is caramelized the recipe suggests adding pine nuts, almonds or hazelnuts, peeled and roasted. The mix is then cooked a bit further, and finally removed from the heat and cut into slices.

 

History[edit]

 

All versions of the name appear to have been derived from Latin torrere (to toast). The modern confection might be derived from the Muslim recipe prevalent in parts of Islamic Spain known as turun.[2] One may also point to a similar confection named cupedia or cupeto that was marketed in Ancient Rome and noted by Roman poets.[3][4]

 

Turrón or Torró has been known at least since the 15th century in the city of Jijona/Xixona (formerly Sexona), north of Alicante. Turrón is commonly consumed in most of Spain, some countries of Latin America, and in Roussillon (France). The similar Torrone is typical of Bagnara, Taurianova, Benevento and Cremona in Italy. There are similar confections made in the Philippines.

 

Variations are found in several regions of the northern Mediterranean.

 

Types[edit]

 

Turrón itself can take on a variety of consistencies and appearances, however they traditionally consisted of the same ingredients; the final product may be either hard and crunchy, or soft and chewy. Thirty years ago almost all turrón recipes followed the same specifications, but since the diversification of products there are currently dozens of varieties: chocolate with puffed rice or whole almonds; all kinds of chocolate pralines, with or without liquor, candied fruits or whole nuts; fruit pralines; and even sugarless variations (sweetened with fructose or artificial sweeteners).

 

Spanish turrón[edit]

 

Spanish turrón may be roughly classified as:

Hard (the Alicante variety): A compact block of whole almonds in a brittle mass of eggs, honey and sugar; 60% almonds.

Soft (the Jijona variety): The almonds are reduced to a paste. The addition of oil makes the matrix more chewy and sticky; 64% almonds.[5]

 

This variation in ingredients and resulting dryness reflects a continuum that exists also in amaretto (almond flavored) cookies, from a meringue to a macaroon. Other varieties include Torró d'Agramunt from near Lleida, Torró de Xerta from near Tortosa and torró de Casinos.

 

Italian torrone[edit]

 

Torrone Classico

Torrone is a traditional winter and Christmas confection in Italy and many varieties exist. They differ from the Spanish version in that a lower proportion of nuts is used in the confection. Traditional versions from Cremona, Lombardy, range widely in texture (morbido, soft and chewy, to duro, hard and brittle) and in flavor (with various citrus flavorings, vanilla, etc., added to the nougat) and may contain whole hazelnuts, almonds and pistachios or only have nut meal added to the nougat. Some commercial versions are dipped in chocolate. The popular recipes have varied with time and differ from one region to the next. Torrone di Benevento from Benevento, Campania, sometimes goes by the historic name Cupedia, which signifies the crumbly version made with hazelnuts. The softer version is made with almonds. The Torrone di Benevento is considered to be the oldest of its kind since it predates Roman times and was widely known in the territories of Samnium.[6][7] Although originally resembling sticky paste, it now differs only marginally from the varieties of Torrone di Cremona.[8][9] Abruzzo, Sicily and Sardinia also have local versions that may be slightly distinct from the two main denominations from Lombardy and Campania.[10]

Torrone di Mandorle (usually eaten around Christmas): blocks of chopped almonds in a brittle mass of honey and sugar.

 

Peruvian turrón[edit]

 

In Peruvian cuisine turrón generally is soft and may be flavored with anise. Is another originally Spanish dessert; the original Spanish recipe, which contained ingredients that were rare or expensive in Peru (such as almonds, rose water, orange blossom water, honey) were modified in a variety of ways. One common variety found in Lima is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat that is traditionally prepared for the Señor de los Milagros (or Lord of Miracles) religious procession, during October.

 

Philippine turrón[edit]

 

Cashew turrón (Philippine Spanish: turrones de casúy; Spanish: turrones de anacardo) from Pampanga Province is a derivative. It is a bar of marzipan made with cashew nuts, and wrapped in a white wafer. Unlike in the rest of Hispanidad, this  is not associated with the holiday season. Another derivative is the turrones de pili, made using the native pili nut.

 

An unrelated yet similarly-named street food is turón na saging, which are sliced banana or plantain dipped in brown sugar, wrapped in spring roll wrappers, and deep-fried.

 

Puerto Rican turrón[edit]

 

In Puerto Rico, turrón is called Turrón de Ajónjolí (sesame turrón). Puerto Rican turrón is made with toasted black and white sesame seeds, ground cinnamon, lemon juice, bound together by caramelized brown sugar and honey. Other varieties include almonds, lime zest, sunflower seeds with flax seeds, orange zest, and toasted coconut flakes.

 

Cuban turrón[edit]

 

In Cuba, turrón de maní (peanut nougat) is a traditional sweet treat. Snack-sized bars are usually peddled across bus stops and crowds, though family loaves of up to two pounds are also available. They run in two variants: blando, ground peanuts pressed into bars with brown sugar; and duro, coarsely chopped roasted peanuts bound together with caramelized sugar and honey.

 

Protected status[edit]

 

Various types of Turrón/Torrone that have protected geographical status under EU law include:

Xixona (PGI) (Valencian Community)[11]

Torró d'Alacant (PGI) (Valencian Community)[12]

Torró d'Agramunt (PGI) (Catalonia)[13]

 

Others, such as Torrone di Cremona (Italy) have protected status by (but not limited to) the country that produces it.

 

See also[edit]

Nougat

Halva

Gaz ()

List of almond dishes

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ "Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Retrieved 2010-01-19.

2. ^ Torrone di Cremona IGP at the Wayback Machine (archived December 26, 2010) Retrieved 23 February 2011.

3. ^ "Torrone di Benevento". Regione Campania-Assessorato all'Agricoltura. Retrieved 2011-02-23.

4. ^ Mario De Simone. "Il vero torrone -- napoletano". Edizioni Pubblicità Italia. Retrieved 2011-02-23.

5. ^ http://journal.pan.olsztyn.pl/fd.php?f=1007

6. ^ "Torrone di Benevento". Regione Campania-Assessorato all'Agricoltura. Retrieved 23 February 2011.

7. ^ Mario De Simone. "Il vero torrone -- napoletano". Edizioni Pubblicità Italia. Retrieved 23 February 2011.

8. ^ "Il torrone di Benevento". Retrieved 2011-02-23.

9. ^ "Dolcezze beneventane". Corriere DemoEtnoAntropologico. Retrieved 2011-02-23.

10. ^ "Torrone". Gruppo Virtuale Cuochi Italiani. Retrieved 2011-02-23.

11. ^ EU Profile - Xixona (07/06/2009)

12. ^ EU Profile - Torró d'Alacant (07/06/2009)

13. ^ EU Profile - Torró d'Agramunt (07/06/2009)

 

Alfajor

 

Alfajor

Alfajor-P1060387.JPG

An original alfajor from Medina Sidonia

Alternative names

Alajú

Course

Sweet

Place of origin

Andalusia, Spain

Serving temperature

Cold

Main ingredients

Flour, honey, almonds, hazelnuts

Cookbook: Alfajor   Media: Alfajor

 

An alfajor or alajú[1] (Spanish pronunciation: [alfaˈxor], plural alfajores) is a traditional confection[2] found in some regions of Spain, the Philippines, and in parts of Latin America, including Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Southern Brazil, and Mexico.[3] The archetypal alfajor entered Iberia during the period of al-Andalus. It is produced in the form of a small cylinder and is sold either individually or in boxes containing several pieces.[4]

 

Contents  [hide]

1 In Spain

2 In South America

3 In the Caribbean

4 Etymology

5 History

6 Preparation and presentation

7 Variations in the Americas 7.1 Guinness World Record: the biggest South American alfajor

 

8 Gallery

9 See also

10 References

 

 

In Spain[edit]

 

In Spain, there are a variety of different recipes for preparing alfajores, but the most traditional contain flour, honey, almonds and several spices, such as cinnamon. Alfajores are most commonly sold around Christmas, but in Medina Sidonia, they are available year-round.[5][6] The traditional Spanish alfajor has been produced in this town (where it is called an alajú) since ancient times, the recipe handed down from father to son.[7]

 

Alfajores are still made by craftsmen in Medina Sidonia using natural ingredients that include honey, almonds, hazelnuts, sugar, flour, and breadcrumbs, and mixed with natural spices.[7] The manufacturing process has been respected following a recipe found by Mariano Pardo de Figueroa in 1786.[8] In Medina Sidonia, the annual production of approximately 45,000 kilograms is mostly consumed in the province of Cadiz, but they are also famous in Sevilla, Malaga and Huelva.[9]

 

On 15 September 2004, protected geographical indication was ratified by the Consejo de agricultura y pesca de la junta de Andalucia[10] and published in the Official Journal of the European Union as Alfajor de Medina Sidonia on 6 March 2007.[11]

 

In the province of Cuenca, Spain, where the alfajor is called alajú it is made with almond, honey and figs, all wrapped in a wafer.[12] Medina Sidonia was the capital for the Arabic world of confection, where the alfajor has centuries of history with a recipe that has been transmitted from generation to generation.[13] In this town, there is an account of Mariano Pardo de Figueroa, a gastronomist better known by his pseudonym Doctor Thebussem, who documented the history of this sweet, wherein he wrote that on 2 July 1487, Enrique de Guzmán, second count of Medina Sidonia, ordered the council and majors of the region to send to Malaga 50 cows, 50 oxen, 200 calves and provision of alajú from his city.[14]

 

The recipe documented by the accounts of Thebussem in the 19th century is defined as the following:

for the alfajor or alajú styling, prepare what I say: one quart of white honey, three means of a pound of hazelnuts and almonds, all roasted and chopped, half ounces of cinnamon, two ounces of aniseed, four drachms of cloves and a quarter of cilantro, roasted and ground coffee, a pound of roasted sesame, eight pounds of dust from grinding, out of bagels without salt or yeast, overcooked in the oven, with half a pound of sugar."[15]

 

In South America[edit]

 

In South America alfajores are found most notably in Argentina, Bolivia, Uruguay, Ecuador, Paraguay, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Alfajores have been popular in Argentina and Uruguay since the mid-19th century. However, these differ from the Spanish alfajores in that they are made with two round cookies with different sweet fillings between them. The filling is usually dulce de leche, although there are a lot of variations. They can be covered with powder sugar (the traditional ones), glaced sugar (Santafesinos or "de nieve"), grated coconut or chocolate. Argentina is today the world largest consumer of alfajores,[citation needed] both in total numbers and in per capita calculations, being the most common snack for schoolchildren and adults.[citation needed]. Alfajores are also very popular in Peru, especially the artisanal types. Other nations from South America might import some from Argentina and Uruguay and have limited consumption.

 

Some of the best known alfajor brands in South America are the Argentine Havanna, Cachafaz and Jorgito and the Uruguayan Punta Ballena.

 

In the Caribbean[edit]

 

In Puerto Rico, they underwent creolization, lost their almond and gained ground cassava. They can take varying amounts of sugar and spices. It's possible that Puerto Rico's most common version of this dessert (South American version with dulce de leche) reached Puerto Rico from Venezuela, but the opposite is also possible. Depending on region some add cornstarch, citrus zest, ginger and honey, filled with chocolate, vanilla cream, dulce de leche, fruit paste, or coconut. The filling can be mixed with almonds, seasame seeds, coconut flakes, or sprinkles.

 

Etymology[edit]

 

According to Spanish philologist and dialectologist Manuel Alvar López, alfajor is an Andalusian variant of the Castilian alajú,[16] derived from the Arabic word الفاخر, al- fakhur, which is not known, neither found in America, where Andalusians introduced it as alfajor,[17][18] from the Arabic word alfahua that means honeycomb.[19] Both words had been introduced into Spanish dictionaries in the 14th century.

 

The publication of the historical dictionary of the Spanish language allows us to document both, alajur very broadly written as alajú and alfajor. Alajur and multiple geographic variations are sweets made of a paste of almonds, nuts, breadcrumbs and honey.[20] It is effectively possible that alfajor and alajú were Arabisms introduced into the Spanish language in different places and times, and, supposing both came from the same etymon, from the phonetic point of view, alajú is an Arabism of the Castillian, and so it is still alive in Cuenca, Toledo, Guadalajara and in la Sierra de la peña (France); meanwhile the variation alfajor is Andalusian and Murcian.[21] In the Americas, the meaning of the word alfajor was not known until the 19th century.[22]

 

History[edit]

 

In 712, the Arab general Musa ibn Nusair arrived in Algeciras with an army of 18,000 soldiers to undertake the conquest of Medina Sidonia, Alcalá de Guadaira and Carmona.[23] A similar sweet called alajú is found in the Arabic-Hispanic cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, by an anonymous author. The Spanish grammarian Nebrija appointed the word for the first time in his Latin-Spanish Dictionary (1492) as: alfaxor or alaxur. In the 12th century, Raimundo Martin describes in his book Vocabulista another possible etymology of the Hispano-Arabic fasur, meaning "nectar".

 

This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, it's unclear whether it was the same sweet present both in Al-Andalus and in precolumbian America?. Please help us clarify the section ; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

The presence of this sweet is evident in the area of southern Peru during the 12th and 13th centuries,[24] being developed in Andalusia since the days of Al-Andalus until today. Due to the popularity of this food, they already were in the warehouses of the first ships of the Spaniards on their way to America. The earliest references to its presence in Latin America referred to Venezuela and Peru, where they were given as rations to the Spanish troops. The popularity of this sweet in the 16th century is reflected in literary works such as Guzman Alfarache.

 

Preparation and presentation[edit]

 

The regulations allow the use of only pure honey, almonds, nuts, breadcrumbs, sugar, flour and spices, such as aniseed, sesame, coriander, cloves and cinnamon. The Protected Geographical Indication alfajores are meant to be presented in a cylindrical shape, with a minimum weight of 30 grams each, and with a minimum size of about 18 cm in length and a diameter of 1,5 cm. Each of them will be protected with a wrapping paper, and the ends made an ornament in a spiral shape with a ribbon out of the same paper. Once individually wrapped, they may be packaged in wood or cardboard boxes, but never in plastic.[25]

 

Variations in the Americas[edit]

Uruguayan and Argentine alfajores

 

Peruvian alfajores

Traditional "alfajores" in Argentina, Peru, and Uruguay consist of two round, sweet biscuits made of wheat flour or corn starch joined together with dulce de leche (known as "manjar blanco" in Peru), and optionally coated with powder sugar. More modern "industrial" varieties in Chile, Uruguay and Argentina, are coated with dark or white chocolate (many alfajores are sold in "black" and "white" versions), or simply covered with powdered sugar. These are also known as a Chilean Oreo. One variation is called "alfajor de nieve" (snow alfajor) and has a white coating consisting of a mixture of egg whites and sugar. Most alfajores come packaged in aluminium foil. Alfajores are made in various diameters and are consumed as snacks.

 

In Mexico, "alfajores" are made with just coconut, and are normally a tri-color coconut confection. In Nicaragua, they are similar to the Canary island type of alfajores and are made with molasses and different grains including corn and cacao. They are often packaged in plastic wrap or wax paper.

 

The Brazilian style of alfajor is commonly known as "bem-casado" (literally "well wed"), also filled with doce de leite and covered with thin sugar. There is also another  known as "pão de mel" (meaning "honey bread" in Portuguese) that shares some features with alfajor, but more closely resembles a gingerbread. This variety is also coated with dark chocolate - like in Argentina, Uruguay and Chile - but has a cake-like texture on the inside and can be filled with doce de leite , chocolate and coconut cream.

 

Other varieties include different elements in the preparation of the biscuits, such as peanuts, and a variety of fillings, coatings, or even the addition of a third biscuit (alfajor triple).

 

Guinness World Record: the biggest South American alfajor[edit]

 

According to Guinness World Records, the biggest alfajor in the world, measuring almost two meters in diameter and 80 centimeters in height and weighing 464 kilograms, was made on 11 December 2010 in Minas, Lavalleja Department, Uruguay.[26] The giant alfajor was made to mark the celebration of Uruguay's first National Alfajor Festival. More than 30 people participated in the preparation of the record-breaking alfajor.[27]

 

Gallery[edit]

Home-made Alfajores made with cornstarch and dulce de leche

Havanna bakery, producer of some of the most celebrated[28] alfajores in Argentina

See also[edit]

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Alfajores

Portal icon Food portal

Macaron, a similar French confection

Mille-feuille, a French confection of layered wafers and cream

Baklava, a Middle-Eastern confection of layered wafers

Pirouline, a cream-filled tubular wafer cookie

List of desserts

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ "El alfajor de Medina Sidonia". José Luis Flores (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 July 2010.

2. ^ "Alfajor de Medina Sidonia" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.

3. ^ "Ice cream alfajores: What sandwich cookies can be". Linda Shiue. Retrieved 2 August 2010.

4. ^ "Alfajor de Medina Sidonia". Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 17 July 2010.

5. ^ "El alfajor, una receta árabe con historia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

6. ^ Marta Rangel Marmol. "El alfajor, una receta árabe que continúa su elaboración en Medina Sidonia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 July 2010.

7.^  to: a b "Gastronomía". Turismo Andaluz S.A. (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

8. ^ Elaboración. Jesús Ávila Granados. Retrieved 23 June 2010.

9. ^ Junta de Andalucía. "IGP Alfajor Medina Sidonia" (PDF). Productos andaluces emblemáticos (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

10. ^ "BOE núm 8" (PDF). Ratificación del Reglamento de la Indicación Geográfica Protegida «Alfajor de Medina Sidonia» (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

11. ^ "Legislation" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 July 2010.

12. ^ Eduardo González Viaña (25 January 2010). "La guerra de los alfajores" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

13. ^ "Alfajor de Medina Sidonia, un dulce tradición de origen árabe". Fátima Fernández (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 July 2010.

14. ^ Thebussem (5 November 1881). "La ilustración española y americana" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

15. ^ "Alfajor de Medina Sidonia y Mantecados de Estepa aúnan tradición y calidad". EFEAGRO (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 July 2010.

16. ^ "Un capítulo de lexocología gastronómica.". Francisco Gómez Ortín (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 July 2010.

17. ^ "El andalucismo del español en América". Carmen Marimón Llorca (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.

18. ^ "El español en América: de la conquista a la Época Colonial". Carmen Marimón Llorca (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 July 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.

19. ^ La sabrosa historia del turrón y primacía de los de Jijona y Alicante. Francisco Figueras Pacheco (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 July 2010.

20. ^ Germá Colón; Günter Holtus; Georges Lüdi; Michael Metzeltin. Persistencia de las voces. La Corona de Aragón y las lenguas románicas (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 July 2010.

21. ^ Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media. por Felipe Maíllo Salgado (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 July 2010.

22. ^ Guille Segal. "El Alfajor: Sus orígenes, su preparación, su sabor inolvidable" (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 July 2010.

23. ^ "Historia de Ronda" (in Spanish).

24. ^ Germá Colón, Günter Holtus, Georges Lüdi, Michael Metzeltin (1989), «La Corona de Aragón y las lenguas románicas», Tübingen, pp:336

25. ^ "Agricultura aprueba las denominaciones de calidad 'Estepa' y 'Alfajor de Medina Sidonia'". Junta de Andalucía (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 July 2010.

26. ^ Guinness World Records. "Largest Alfajor". Retrieved 21 April 2012.

27. ^ Bonhomme, Fernando (10 June 2011). "Guinness reconoció el alfajor más grande del mundo: pesa 464 kilos". El País (Uruguay). Retrieved 21 April 2012.

28. ^ Schwaner-Albright, Oliver (24 December 2006). "Got Leche?". New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2012

 

 

 

Quince cheese

 

 

(Redirected from Dulce de membrillo)

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Quince cheese

Dulce de membrillo.jpg

Type

Jelly

Main ingredients

Quince, sugar

Cookbook: Quince cheese   Media: Quince cheese

 

The quince is a hard, golden yellow fruit. The fruit was known to the Akkadians, who called it supurgillu.[1]

Quince cheese, also known as dulce de membrillo (Spanish: [ˈdulθe ðe memˈbɾiʎo]), is a sweet, thick, jelly made of the pulp of the quince fruit. Quince cheese is a common confection in several countries, where it goes by other names, such as carne de membrillo or ate de membrillo in Spanish, marmelada in Portuguese, marmelo in Galician, codonyat in Catalan, cotognata [kotoɲˈɲaːta] in Italian, birsalma sajt [ˈbirʃɒlmɒ ˈʃɒjt] or birsalma zselé [ˈbirʃɒlmɒ ˈʒɛleː] in Hungarian and membrilyo in Tagalog. In Australia, it is known as quince paste.

 

Traditionally and predominantly from Portugal, Italy (exported when the South of Italy was part of the Crown of Aragón) and Spain, dulce de membrillo is a firm, sticky, sweet reddish hard paste made of the quince (Cydonia oblonga) fruit.[2] Dulce de membrillo is also very popular in Australia, America, in Brazil (as marmelada), Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Peru, and Mexico. In Israel it is a typical Sephardi dish.

Contents  [hide]

1 History

2 Preparation

3 Regional variations

4 See also

5 References

 

 

History[edit]

 

The recipe is probably of ancient origin;[3] the Roman cookbook of Apicius,[3] a collection of Roman cookery recipes compiled in the late 4th or early 5th century AD gives recipes for stewing quince with honey.

 

Historically, marmalade was made from quinces.[4] The English word "marmalade" comes from the Portuguese word marmelada, meaning "quince preparation" (and used to describe quince cheese or quince jam; "marmelo" = "quince").[5] Nowadays (in English) "A marmalade is a jellied fruit product which holds suspended within it all or part of the fruit pulp and the sliced peel. It is prepared from pulpy fruits, preferably those that contain pectin. Citrus fruits are especially desirable because of their flavor and pectin content."[6]

 

Preparation[edit]

 

Quince cheese is prepared with quince fruits. The fruit is cooked with sugar,[3] turns red after a long cooking time, and becomes a relatively firm quince jelly, dense enough to hold its shape. The taste is sweet but slightly astringent, and it is similar in consistency, flavor and use to guava cheese or guava paste.[7]

 

Quince cheese is sold in squares or blocks, then cut into thin slices and spread over toasted bread or sandwiches, plain or with cheese, often served for breakfast or as a snack, with manchego, mató, or Picón cheese. It is also often used to stuff pastries.

 

Regional variations[edit]

Traditional quince cheese ("cotognata") on display at the Ortygia market in Syracuse, Italy.

In Spain, Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay, the membrillo (as the quince is called in Spanish) is cooked into a reddish gelatin-like block or firm reddish paste known as dulce de membrillo. The Pastafrola, a sweet tart common in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, is usually filled with quince paste. In Argentina and Uruguay, the dulce de membrillo is also a popular dessert, eaten with a slice of cheese, which is called "vigilante" or "martín fierro".

 

In the Philippines the dessert is known as membrilyo even if it is made of guava, since quince is unavailable in the former Spanish colony. It is a traditional part of the nochebuena array served on Christmas Eve.

 

In French "quince paste" or pâte de coing[8] is part of the Provence Christmas traditions and part of the thirteen desserts,[9] which are the traditional dessert foods used in celebrating Christmas in the French region of Provence.

 

In Serbia, especially Vojvodina, all of Hungary, and continental Croatia, i.e., Slavonija quince cheese is an often prepared sweet and is named kitn(i)kes, derived from German "Quittenkäse".

 

Quince cheese, a New England specialty[3] of the 18th century, required all-day boiling to achieve a solidified state, similar to the French cotignac.

 

In Hungary, quince cheese is called birsalma sajt,[10] and is prepared with small amounts of lemon zest, cinnamon or cloves and often with peeled walnut inside. Péter Melius Juhász, the Hungarian botanist, mentioned quince cheese as early as 1578 as a fruit preparation with medical benefits.[11]

 

In Pakistan, quinces are stewed together with sugar until they turn bright red. The resulting stewed quince, called muraba, is then preserved in jars.

 

See also[edit]

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dulce de membrillo.

Thirteen desserts

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ Jeremy A. Black, Andrew George, J. N. Postgate, A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian

2. ^ Lisa & Tony Sierra. "Dulce de Membrillo (Quince Paste) Information". About. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

3.^  to: a b c d "Vegetarians in Paradise/Quince History/Quince Nutrition/Quince Folklore/Quince Recipe". Vegparadise.com. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

4. ^ "Orange Marmalade Taste Test - Cook's Illustrated". Cook's Illustrated. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

5. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary

6. ^ Farmers' Bulletin 1800 Home-made Jellies, Jams and Preserves Fanny Jerome Walker Yeatman, Mabel Clare Stienbarger Foods and Nutrition Division, Bureau of Home Economics. US Department of Agriculture May 1938. Slightly revised June 1945

7. ^ "Membrillo (quince cheese): How to...: Good Food Channel". Uktv.co.uk. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

8. ^ "French Recipes - Traditional French Food and Desserts". About. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

9. ^ "Christmas Traditions in Provence". Provenceweb.fr. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

10. ^ "Birsalmasajt". Chew.hu. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

11. ^ "Birsalma sajt". Quali-t-uw.hu. Retrieved 9 December 2014.

 

 

Dulce de batata

 

Dulce de batata

Dulce de batata1.JPG

Dulce de batata with an addition of chocolate that was sold in a can

Type

Dessert

Main ingredients

Sweet potatoes

Cookbook: Dulce de batata   Media: Dulce de batata

This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

Dulce de batata (in Spanish: sweet potato , or: sweet potato jam) or doce de batata doce (Portuguese expression with the same meaning) is a traditional Argentine, Paraguayan, Uruguayan, Chilean (where it's known as Dulce de Camote) and Brazilian dessert, which is made of sweet potatoes. It is a sweet jelly, which resembles a marmalade because of its hard texture. In Brazil it is known as marrom glacê.

 

When sold commercially, it is often found canned in flat and round metal cans. In some of the commercial versions of the food, chocolate is added to it.

 

It is commonly eaten with crackers and/or cheese.

 

See also[edit]

List of desserts

Foodlogo2.svg Food portal

 

 

Biscuit

 

(Redirected from Biscuits)

See also: Biscuit (bread) and Cookie

For other uses, see Biscuit (disambiguation).

This article may lack focus or may be about more than one topic. Please help improve this article, possibly by splitting the article and/or by introducing a disambiguation page, or discuss this issue on the talk page. (May 2016)

 

Biscuit

BiscuitsAmerican&British.png

American biscuit (left) and one variety of British biscuit (right) – the American biscuit is soft and flaky like a scone; whereas British biscuits are drier and often crunchy.

Cookbook: Biscuit   Media: Biscuit

Biscuit is a term used for a diverse variety of baked, commonly flour-based food products. The term is applied to two distinct products in North America and the Commonwealth of Nations and Europe. The North American biscuit is typically a soft, leavened quickbread, and is covered in the article Biscuit (bread). This article covers the other type of biscuit, which is typically hard, flat and unleavened.

 

For a list of varieties, see the list of biscuits and cookies.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Variations in meaning

2 Etymology

3 History 3.1 Biscuits for travel

3.2 Confectionery biscuits

4 Biscuits today 4.1 Commonwealth of Nations and Europe

4.2 North America

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links

 

 

Variations in meaning[edit]

In Commonwealth English and Hiberno-English, a biscuit is a small baked product that would be called either a "cookie" or a "cracker" in the United States and sometimes a "cookie" in English-speaking Canada.[1] Biscuits in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and Ireland are hard, and may be savoury or sweet, such as chocolate biscuits, digestives, hobnobs, ginger nuts, rich tea, bourbons and custard creams. In the Commonwealth Nations and Ireland, the term "cookie" typically refers to only one type of biscuit (chocolate chip cookie); however, it may also locally refer to specific types of biscuits or breads.[2]

In the United States and some parts of English Canada, a "biscuit" is a quick bread, somewhat similar to a scone, and usually unsweetened. Leavening is achieved through the use of baking powder or when using buttermilk baking soda. Biscuits are usually referred to as either "baking powder biscuits"[3] or "buttermilk biscuits" if buttermilk is used rather than milk as a liquid. A Southern regional variation using the term "beaten biscuit" (or in New England "sea biscuit") is closer to hardtack than soft dough biscuits.[4]

 

Beaten biscuits

Etymology[edit]

 

The modern-day difference in the English language regarding the word "biscuit" is provided by British cookery writer Elizabeth David in English Bread and Yeast Cookery, in the chapter "Yeast Buns and Small Tea Cakes" and section "Soft Biscuits". She writes,

 

It is interesting that these soft biscuits (such as scones) are common to Scotland and Guernsey, and that the term biscuit as applied to a soft product was retained in these places, and in America, whereas in England it has completely died out.[5]

 

The Old French word bescuit is derived from the Latin words bis (twice) and coquere, coctus (to cook, cooked), and, hence, means "twice-cooked".[6][n 1] This is because biscuits were originally cooked in a twofold process: first baked, and then dried out in a slow oven.[7] This term was then adapted into English in the 14th century during the Middle Ages, in the Middle English word bisquite, to represent a hard, twice-baked product.[8]

 

However, the Dutch language from around 1703 had adopted the word koekje ("little cake") to have a similar meaning for a similar hard, baked product.[9] The difference between the secondary Dutch word and that of Latin origin is that, whereas the koekje is a cake that rises during baking, the biscuit, which has no raising agent, in general does not (see gingerbread/ginger biscuit), except for the expansion of heated air during baking.[citation needed]

 

When continental Europeans began to emigrate to colonial North America, the two words and their "same but different" meanings began to clash. The words cookie or cracker became the words of choice to mean a hard, baked product. Further confusion has been added by the adoption of the word biscuit for a small leavened bread popular in the United States. According to the American English dictionary Merriam-Webster, a cookie is a "small flat or slightly raised cake".[9] A biscuit is "any of various hard or crisp dry baked product" similar to the American English terms cracker or cookie,[8] or "a small quick bread made from dough that has been rolled out and cut or dropped from a spoon".[8]

 

In a number of other European languages, terms derived from the latin bis coctus refer instead to yet another baked product, similar to the sponge cake; e.g. Spanish bizcocho, German Biskuitmasse, Russian бисквит (biskvit), Polish biszkopt.

 

In modern Italian usage, the term biscotto is used to refer to any type of hard twice-baked biscuit, and not only to the cantuccini as in the past.

 

History[edit]

 

Biscuits for travel[edit]

 

ship's biscuit display in Kronborg, Denmark

Main article: Hardtack

 

The need for nutritious, easy-to-store, easy-to-carry, and long-lasting foods on long journeys, in particular at sea, was initially solved by taking live food along with a butcher/cook. However, this took up additional space on what were either horse-powered treks or small ships, reducing the time of travel before additional food was required. This resulted in early armies' adopting the style of hunter-foraging.

 

The introduction of the baking of processed cereals including the creation of flour provided a more reliable source of food. Egyptian sailors carried a flat, brittle loaf of millet bread called dhourra cake, while the Romans had a biscuit called buccellum.[10] Roman cookbook Apicius describes: "a thick paste of fine wheat flour was boiled and spread out on a plate. When it had dried and hardened, it was cut up and then fried until crisp, then served with honey and pepper."

 

Many early physicians believed that most medicinal problems were associated with digestion. Hence, for both sustenance and avoidance of illness, a daily consumption of a biscuit was considered good for health.

 

Hard biscuits soften as they age. To solve this problem, early bakers attempted to create the hardest biscuit possible. Because it is so hard and dry, if properly stored and transported, navies' hardtack will survive rough handling and high temperature. Baked hard, it can be kept without spoiling for years as long as it is kept dry. For long voyages, hardtack was baked four times, rather than the more common two.[11] To soften hardtack for eating, it was often dunked in brine, coffee, or some other liquid or cooked into a skillet meal.

 

At the time of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the daily allowance on board a Royal Navy ship was one pound of biscuit plus one gallon of beer. Samuel Pepys in 1667 first regularised naval victualling with varied and nutritious rations. Royal Navy hardtack during Queen Victoria's reign was made by machine at the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard at Gosport, Hampshire, stamped with the Queen's mark and the number of the oven in which they were baked. Biscuits remained an important part of the Royal Navy sailor's diet until the introduction of canned foods. Canned meat was first marketed in 1814; preserved beef in tins was officially added to Royal Navy rations in 1847.[10]

 

Confectionery biscuits[edit]

Traditional Polish Toruń gingerbread pierniki toruńskie

Early biscuits were hard, dry, and unsweetened. They were most often cooked after bread, in a cooling bakers' oven; they were a cheap form of sustenance for the poor.

 

By the seventh century AD, cooks of the Persian empire had learnt from their forebears the techniques of lightening and enriching bread-based mixtures with eggs, butter, and cream, and sweetening them with fruit and honey.[12] One of the earliest spiced biscuits was gingerbread, in French pain d'épices, meaning "spice bread", brought to Europe in 992 by the Armenian monk Grégoire de Nicopolis. He left Nicopolis Pompeii, of Lesser Armenia to live in Bondaroy, France, near the town of Pithiviers. He stayed there for seven years, and taught French priests and Christians how to cook gingerbread.[13][14][15] This was originally a dense, treaclely (molasses-based) spice cake or bread. As it was so expensive to make, early ginger biscuits were a cheap form of using up the leftover bread mix.

 

The milk chocolate coated side of a McVitie's chocolate digestive

With the combination of the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, and then the Crusades developing the spice trade, the cooking techniques and ingredients of Arabia spread into Northern Europe.[12] By mediaeval times, biscuits were made from a sweetened, spiced paste of breadcrumbs and then baked (e.g., gingerbread), or from cooked bread enriched with sugar and spices and then baked again.[16] King Richard I of England (aka Richard the Lionheart) left for the Third Crusade (1189–92) with "biskit of muslin", which was a mixed corn compound of barley, rye, and bean flour.[10]

 

As the making and quality of bread had been controlled to this point, so were the skills of biscuit-making through the craft guilds.[12] As the supply of sugar began, and the refinement and supply of flour increased, so did the ability to sample more leisurely foodstuffs, including sweet biscuits. Early references from the Vadstena monastery show how the Swedish nuns were baking gingerbread to ease digestion in 1444.[17] The first documented trade of gingerbread biscuits dates to the 16th century, where they were sold in monastery pharmacies and town square farmers markets. Gingerbread became widely available in the 18th century. The British biscuit firms of McVitie's, Carr's, Huntley & Palmer, and Crawfords were all established by 1850.[18]

 

Along with local farm produce of meat and cheese, many regions of the world have their own distinct style of biscuit due to the historic prominence of this form of food.

 

Biscuits today[edit]

Commonwealth of Nations and Europe[edit]

Biscuit rose de Reims

Most modern biscuits can trace their origins back to either the hardtack ship's biscuit, or the creative art of the baker:

Ship's biscuit derived: Digestive, rich tea, hobnobs

Baker's art: Biscuit rose de Reims

 

Biscuits today can be savoury or sweet, but most are small at around 5 cm (2.0 in) in diameter, and flat. The term biscuit also applies to sandwich-type biscuits, wherein a layer of "creme" or icing is sandwiched between two biscuits, such as the custard cream, or a layer of jam (as in biscuits which, in the United Kingdom, are known as "Jammie Dodgers")

 

Dunking a biscuit

Sweet biscuits are commonly eaten as a snack food, and are, in general, made with wheat flour or oats, and sweetened with sugar or honey. Varieties may contain chocolate, fruit, jam, nuts, ginger or even be used to sandwich other fillings.

 

In Britain, the digestive biscuit and rich tea have a strong cultural identity as the traditional accompaniment to a cup of tea, and are regularly eaten as such. Many tea drinkers "dunk" their biscuits in tea, allowing them to absorb liquid and soften slightly before consumption.[19] The best selling biscuit brand in the UK, McVitie's biscuits are the most popular biscuits to dunk in tea, with McVitie's chocolate digestives, Rich tea and Hobnobs ranked the nation's top three favourite biscuits in 2009.[19]

 

 

 A dark chocolate Tim Tam

Savoury biscuits or crackers (such as cream crackers, water biscuits, oatcakes, or crisp breads) are usually plainer and commonly eaten with cheese following a meal. Many savoury biscuits also contain additional ingredients for flavour or texture, such as poppy seeds, onion or onion seeds, cheese (such as cheese melts), and olives. Savoury biscuits also usually have a dedicated section in most European supermarkets, often in the same aisle as sweet biscuits. The exception to savoury biscuits is the sweetmeal digestive known as the "Hovis biscuit", which, although slightly sweet, is still classified as a cheese biscuit.[20] Savoury biscuits sold in supermarkets are sometimes associated with a certain geographical area, such as Scottish oatcakes or Cornish wafer biscuits.

 

In general, the British, Australians, South Africans, New Zealanders, Nigerians, Kenyans, Indians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Singaporeans and the Irish use the British meaning of "biscuit" for the sweet biscuit, the terms biscuit and cookie are used interchangeably, depending on the region and the speaker, with biscuits usually referring to hard, sweet biscuits (such as digestives, Nice, Bourbon creams, etc.) and cookies for soft baked goods (i.e. chocolate chip cookies)[citation needed], In Canada this term is now used less frequently, usually with imported brands of biscuits or in the Maritimes; however the Canadian Christie Biscuits referred to what Americans would call crackers.[citation needed] This sense is at the root of the name of the United States' most prominent maker of cookies and crackers, the National Biscuit Company, now called Nabisco.

 

North America[edit]

Main article: Biscuit (bread)

 

Runny hunny.jpg

 

A biscuit in the United States and parts of Canada, and widely used in popular American English, is a small bread with a firm browned crust and a soft interior. They are made with baking powder or baking soda as a chemical leavening agent rather than yeast although they can also be made using yeast (and are then called angel biscuits) or a sourdough starter.

 

They are traditionally served as a side dish with a meal. As a breakfast item they are often eaten with butter and a sweet condiment such as molasses, light sugarcane syrup, maple syrup, sorghum syrup, honey, or fruit jam or jelly. With other meals they are usually eaten with butter or gravy instead of sweet condiments. However, biscuits and gravy (biscuits covered in country gravy) or biscuits with sausage are usually served for breakfast, sometimes as the main course. A biscuit may also be used to make a breakfast sandwich by slicing it in half and placing eggs and/or breakfast meat in the middle.

 

See also[edit]

Portal icon Food portal

American and British English differences

Biscuit tin

Dog biscuit

Ground biscuit

List of baked goods

List of biscuits and cookies

List of quick breads

Rusk

 

Notes[edit]

 

1. ^ See, for example, Shakespeare's use of "Twice-sod simplicity! Bis coctus!" in Love's Labour's Lost. (David Crystal; Ben Crystal (eds.). "Love's Labour's Lost". Shakespeare's Words. Penguin Books. Retrieved 2016-04-15.)

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ Except Newfoundland, where the British term is used and the American "biscuit" is virtually unheard of. Neither is a popular food item in the province.[citation needed]

2. ^ "cookie". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. "In Scotland the usual name for a baker's plain bun; in U.S. usually a small flat sweet cake (a biscuit in U.K.), but locally a name for small cakes of various form with or without sweetening. Also S. Afr. and Canad."

3. ^ "Baking Powder Biscuits Source: U.S. Department of Defense". Theodora's Recipies [sic]. Retrieved 2013-12-20.

4. ^ http://www.foodtimeline.org/foodcookies.html#cowboybiscuits

5. ^ Elizabeth David (1977) English Bread and Yeast Cookery, Penguin Books Ltd., London ISBN 0-7139-1026-7

6. ^ "Biscuit". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2009.

7. ^ "Biscuit". askoxford.com. Retrieved 14 January 2010.

8.^  to: a b c "Biscuit". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 14 January 2010.

9.^  to: a b "Cookie". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 14 January 2010.

10.^  to: a b c "Ship's Biscuits – Royal Navy hardtack". Royal Navy Museum. 2000. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.

11. ^ "Bisquet". Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences I. Ephraim Chambers. 1728. p. 105. Retrieved 2013-05-03.

12.^  to: a b c "Biscuits & Cookies". Food Timeline. Retrieved 15 January 2010.

13. ^ La Confrérie du Pain d'Epices

14. ^ Le Pithiviers Archived 30 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine.

15. ^ "Monastère orthodoxe des Saints Grégoire Armeanul et Martin le Seul". Monastere-saintgregoire.net. Retrieved 2013-08-10.

16. ^ "Biscuits". greenchronicle.com. Retrieved 14 January 2010.

17. ^ Pepparkakans historia Annas Pepparkakor The history of gingerbread Annas Pepparkakor

18. ^ Alan Davidson (1999). Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press.

19.^  to: a b "Chocolate digestive is nation's favourite dunking biscuit". The Telegraph. 2 May 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2014.

20. ^ "Cheese Biscuits Source: U.S. Department of Defense". Theodora's Recipies. Retrieved 2013-12-20.

 

 

Lollipop

 

For other uses, see Lollipop (disambiguation).

Lollipop

Lollipop-Rainbox-Swirl.jpg

A large, rainbow-swirl lollipop

Alternative names

Lolly, sucker, sticky-pop

Type

Confectionery

Main ingredients

Sucrose, corn syrup, flavoring

 

Variations

Ice pops

Cookbook: Lollipop   Media: Lollipop

 

A lollipop is a type of confectionery now consisting of a sweetmeat of hard  or water-ice mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking.[1] Different informal terms are used in different places, including lolly, sucker, sticky-pop, etc.[citation needed] Lollipops are available in many flavors and shapes.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Types 1.1 Medicinal use

2 History

3 See also

4 References

 

Types

 

Spiral type with multi-color

Lollipops are available in a number of colors and flavors, particularly fruit flavors. With numerous companies producing lollipops, the  now comes in dozens of flavors and many different shapes. They range from small ones which can be bought by the hundred and are often given away for free at banks, barbershops, and other locations, to very large ones made out of  canes twisted into a circle.

 

Most lollipops are eaten at room temperature, but "ice lollipops" or "ice lollies" are frozen water-based lollipops. Similar confections on a stick made of ice cream, often with a flavored coating, are usually not called by this name.

 

Some lollipops contain fillings, such as bubble gum or soft . Some novelty lollipops have more unusual items, such as mealworm larvae, embedded in the .[2] Other novelty lollipops have non-edible centers, such a flashing light, embedded within the ; there is also a trend[where?] of lollipops with sticks attached to a motorized device that makes the entire lollipop spin around in one's mouth.

 

In the Nordic countries, Germany, and the Netherlands, some lollipops are flavored with salmiak.

 

Medicinal use

 

Lollipops can be used to carry medicines.

 

Some lollipops have been marketed for use as diet aids, although their effectiveness is untested, and anecdotal cases of weight loss may be due to the power of suggestion.[3] Flavored lollipops containing medicine are intended to give children medicine without fuss.

 

Actiq is a powerful analgesic lollipop whose active ingredient is fentanyl. This makes for fast action; the lollipop is used, for example, by the military, and is not a way to make medicine palatable to children.

 

History

 

The idea of an edible  on a stick is very simple, and it is probable that the lollipop has been invented and reinvented numerous times.[4] The history of the first lollipops in America appears to have been distorted over time. There is some speculation that lollipops were invented during the American Civil War (1861–1865). Others believe some version of the lollipop has been around since the early 1800s. George Smith claimed to be the first to invent the modern style lollipop in 1908 and trademarked the lollipop name in 1931.[5] He used the idea of putting  on a stick to make it easier to eat and reportedly named the treats after a popular racing horse, Lolly Pop. It initially referred to soft, rather than hard . The term may have derived from the term "lolly" (tongue) and "pop" (slap). The first references to the lollipop in its modern context date to the 1920s.[6] Alternatively, it may be a word of Romany origin being related to the Roma tradition of selling toffee apples sold on a stick. Red apple in the Romany language is loli phaba.[7]

 

The first confectioneries that closely resemble what we call lollipops date to the Middle Ages, when the nobility would often eat boiled sugar with the aid of sticks or handles.[4] The invention of the modern lollipop is still something of a mystery but a number of American companies in the early 20th century have laid claim to it. According to the book Food For Thought: Extraordinary Little Chronicles of the World, they were invented by George Smith of New Haven, Connecticut, who started making large boiled sweets mounted on sticks in 1908. He named them after a racehorse of the time, Lolly Pop.[8]

 

The term 'lollipop' was recorded by English lexicographer Francis Grose in 1796.[9]

 

See also

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to lollipop.

 

Look up lollipop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Chupa Chups

Dum Dum Pop

Hard

Ice cream cone

Ice pop

Popsicle

Stick

Tootsie Pops

Whistle Pops

 

References

 

1. ^ "Lollipop". How Products are Made. Advameg Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-19.

2. ^ Fromme, Alison (July–August 2005). "Edible insects". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved 2007-03-24.

3. ^ St. James, Janet (February 8, 2007). "Lollipop Diet helps woman shed pounds". WFAA News (Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas). Archived from the original on May 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-24.

4.^  to: a b "The History of Lollipop ". Favorites.com. Retrieved 2013-12-27.

5. ^ "Lollipops and  Suckers – Retro  from". Crate.com. Retrieved 2013-12-27.

6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lollipop". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 17 January 2012.

7. ^ What is the Romani Language?. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-27.

8. ^ Pearce, Food For Thought: Extraordinary Little Chronicles of the World, (2004) page 183.

9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, 1933

 

Routes of administration / Dosage forms

Oral

Digestive tract (enteral)

Solids

 

Pill ·

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  Liquids

 

Decoction ·

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 Syrup ·

 Syrup Concentrate for dilution and/or addition of carbonated water ·

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Buccal (Sublabial) Sublingual

Solids

 

Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) ·

 Film ·

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 Sublingual drops ·

 Lozenges ·

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Mouthwash ·

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 Respiratory

 tract

Solids

 

Smoking device ·

Dry-powder inhaler (DPI)

 

Liquids

Anaesthetic vaporizer ·

 Vaporizer ·

 Nebulizer ·

 Metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

 Gas

 Oxygen mask and Nasal cannula ·

 Oxygen concentrator ·

 Anaesthetic machine ·

 Relative analgesia machine

 

FlattenedRoundPills.jpg

Hexaaquatitanium(III)-solution.jpg

Inhaler.jpg

Glycerin suppositories.jpg

Action photo of nasal spray on a black background.jpg

SPF15SunBlock.JPG

Injection Syringe 01.jpg

 

Ophthalmic /

Otologic / Nasal

 

Nasal spray ·

 Ear drops ·

 Eye drops ·

 Ointment ·

 Hydrogel ·

 Nanosphere suspension ·

 Insufflation ·

 Mucoadhesive microdisc (microsphere tablet)

Urogenital

 

Ointment ·

 Pessary (vaginal suppository) ·

 Vaginal ring ·

 Vaginal douche ·

 Intrauterine device (IUD) ·

 Extra-amniotic infusion ·

 Intravesical infusion

 

Rectal (enteral)

 

Ointment ·

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 Enema  (Solution ·

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Ointment ·

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 Electrophoretic dermal delivery system ·

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 Liposomes ·

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 Lip balm ·

 Medicated shampoo ·

 Dermal patch ·

 Transdermal patch ·

 Contact (rubbed into break in the skin) ·

 Transdermal spray ·

 Jet injector

 injection /

Infusion

(into tissue/

 blood)

Skin

 

Intradermal ·

 Subcutaneous ·

 Transdermal implant

 

Organs

 

Intracavernous ·

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 Central nervous system

 

Intracerebral ·

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 Circulatory / Musculoskeletal

 

Intravenous ·

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 PIC line

 Category Category Commons page Commons WikiProject WikiProject 

 

 

Dulce de leche

 

"Manjar" redirects here. For the Syrian town, see al-Manajir.

Dulce de leche (Doce de leite)

DulceDeLeche.jpg

A jar of dulce de leche

 Alternative names

Manjar, manjar blanco, arequipe

Type

Confectionery

Main ingredients

Milk, sugar

 

Variations

Cajeta, arequipe

 

Food energy

(per serving)

 320 kcal (1340 kJ)

 Cookbook: Dulce de leche (Doce de leite)   Media: Dulce de leche (Doce de leite)

 

Dulce de leche (pronounced: [ˈdulθe ðe ˈletʃe] in Spain; pronounced: [ˈdulse ðe ˈletʃe] in Latin America; Portuguese: doce de leite [ˈdosi dʒi ˈlejtʃi] or [ˈdosɨ dɨ ˈlejtɨ]) is a confection prepared by slowly heating sweetened milk to create a substance that derives its taste from the Maillard reaction, changing flavour and colour.[1] Literally translated, it means "Jam [made] of milk" or "sweet [made] of milk."[2] It is popular in Argentina, as well as most of Latin America, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuela.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Regional variants

2 Preparation and uses

3 See also

4 References

5 External links

 

 

Regional variants[edit]

 

The dulce de leche of El Salvador has a soft, crumbly texture, with an almost crystallized form. Central Mexico had versions as manjar (vanilla flavored) or cajeta which is made from goat's milk, in the North of the country the "dulce de leche" from cow's milk is more used. In Cuba, dulce de leche is made from soured milk that's curdled and then sweetened, called cortada. In the Dominican Republic, it is made with equal parts milk and sugar with cinnamon, and the texture is more like fudge. In Puerto Rico, dulce de leche is sometimes made with unsweetened coconut milk.The origin of candied milk comes, probably, from Galicia, although the distinct confiture known as "Dulce de Leche" in Argentina came from Chile during colonial times.http://edant.clarin.com/diario/2003/04/06/s-04104.htm

 

Dulce de leche is also popular in the Philippines, where it is usually paired with cakes or breakfast rolls. As in other places, it has also found its way into other desserts such as cakes and ice cream.

 

A French version, known as confiture de lait (literally "milk jam"), is very similar to the spreadable forms of dulce de leche. In Haiti, it is known as "douce lait".

 

The Norwegian HaPå spread is a commercial variant that is thicker and less sweet. The name is an abbreviation of "Hamar" where it originally was made and "Pålegg" (spread). "Ha på" literally means "put on" as a reference to putting it on a slice of bread. HaPå originated during the Second World War when, due to the scarcity of supplies, housewives would boil Viking-melk (a type of condensed milk) to a very similar type of spread. After the war the production was commercialized and continues to this day.

 

In Russia, the same preparation, traditionally made by boiling cans of condensed milk in water bath for several hours is known as "варёная сгущёнка" varyonaya sgushchyonka ("boiled condensed milk") as long as condensed milk is known there, and was (and still is) a mainstay of home confectioners and sweet fillings. In Soviet times there was some commercial production, but at a scale insufficient to meet a demand, so most households returned to traditional at-home preparation. Since the fall of the USSR the spread (though often imitated by various starch-based concoctions) exploded in popularity and is widely commercially produced both in can form and as an ingredient and default filling in various sweets.

 

Preparation and uses[edit]

 

The most basic recipe calls for slowly simmering milk and sugar, stirring almost constantly, although other ingredients such as vanilla may be added for flavour. Much of the water in the milk evaporates and the mix thickens; the resulting dulce de leche is usually about a sixth of the volume of the milk used. The transformation that occurs in preparation is caused by a combination of two common browning reactions called caramelization and the Maillard reaction.[3]

 

Muffins with dulce de leche sauce

A home-made form of dulce de leche is sometimes made by boiling an unopened can of sweetened condensed milk for two to three hours (or 30 to 45 minutes in a pressure cooker), particularly by those living in countries where it cannot be bought ready-made. This results in a product that is much sweeter than the slow-boiled kind. It is dangerous to do this on a stove: if the pot is allowed to boil dry, the can will overheat and explode.[4]

 

Dulce de leche is used to flavour candies or other sweet foods, such as cakes, churros, cookies (see alfajor), waffles, crème caramel (known as flan in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions), and ice creams; it provides the "toffee" part of English Banoffee pie and is also a popular spread on pancakes and toast, while the French confiture de lait is commonly served with fromage blanc.

 

A solid  made from dulce de leche, similar to the Polish krówka and named Vaquita ("little cow"), was manufactured by the Mu-Mu factory in Argentina until the company went out of business in 1984. Subsequently, other brands began to manufacture similar candies, giving them names such as "Vauquita" and "Vaquerita" in an effort to link their products to the original.

 

See also[edit]

Portal icon Latin America portal

Portal icon Food portal

Baked milk

Banoffee pie

Basundi

Brunost

Cajeta

Caramel

Caramel

Flan

Custard

Dum Dums

Kaymak

Krówki

Maillard reaction

Manjar blanco

Penuche

Russian

Ryazhenka

Teja

Tres leches cake

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ "Origen mítico del dulce de leche". edant.clarin.com (in Spanish). Clarín. Retrieved 8 June 2014.

2. ^ Ducrot, Víctor Ego (6 de abril de 2003). «Origen mítico del dulce de leche» (HTM). edant.clarin.com. Consultado el 2 de junio de 2014.

3. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner. p. 657. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

4. ^ Kijac, Maria Baez (2003). The South American Table: The Flavour and Soul of Authentic Home Cooking from Patagonia to Rio de Janeiro, with 450 Recipes. Boston, MA: Harvard Common Press. p. 391. ISBN 1-55832-249-3. Retrieved August 8, 2012.

 

 

 

Polenta

 

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

For other uses, see Polenta (disambiguation).

Polenta

Polenta uncooked.jpg

Polenta, uncooked

Type

Porridge

Place of origin

Northern Italy and Central Italy,[1]

 

Main ingredients

Yellow or white cornmeal, liquid (water, soup stock)

Cookbook: Polenta   Media: Polenta

 

Polenta (Italian pronunciation: [poˈlɛnta],[2][3]) is a dish of boiled cornmeal. It may be consumed hot as a porridge or allowed to cool and solidify into a loaf, which is then baked, fried, or grilled.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 Etymology

2 Description

3 Preparation

4 In popular culture

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 External links

 

 

Etymology[edit]

 

Latin polenta covered any hulled and crushed grain, especially barley-meal, and is derived from Latin pollen 'fine flour', which shares a root with pulvis 'dust'.[4]

 

Description[edit]

Polenta served in the traditional manner on a round wooden cutting board

As it is known today, polenta derives from earlier forms of grain mush (known as puls or pulmentum in Latin or more commonly as gruel or porridge), commonly eaten since Roman times. Before the introduction of corn (maize) from America in the 16th century,[5] polenta was made with such starchy ingredients as farro, chestnut flour, millet, spelt, and chickpeas.[6]

 

Polenta has a creamy texture due to the gelatinization of starch in the grain. However, its consistency may not be completely homogeneous if a coarse grind or hard grain such as flint corn is used.[citation needed]

 

Historically, polenta was served as a peasant food in North America and Europe.[citation needed] The reliance on maize, which lacks readily accessible niacin unless cooked with alkali to release it, as a staple caused outbreaks of pellagra throughout the American South and much of Europe until the 20th century.[citation needed] In the 1940s and 1950s, polenta was often eaten with salted anchovy or herring, sometimes topped with sauces.[citation needed]

 

Preparation[edit]

Polenta, by Pietro Longhi

During preparation, the polenta is stirred with a large wooden stick called a cannella (traditionally made of walnut) until it becomes thick enough to support the stirring rod on its own

 

A modern shrimp dish with grilled polenta

Polenta is typically simmered in a water-based liquid with other ingredients. Ingredients can also be added later once the polenta is done. It is often cooked in a large copper pot known in Italian as a paiolo. Boiled polenta may eaten as it is, or it may be allowed to set, then baked, grilled or fried. Leftovers can be used the same way. In the Trieste area, it is eaten after the Venetian tradition with cuttle fish and tomato broth, with sausage following Austrian influence or with cooked plums following an ancient recipe. Some Lombard polenta dishes are polenta taragna (which includes buckwheat flour), polenta uncia, polenta concia, polenta e gorgonzola, and missultin e polenta; all are cooked with various cheeses and butter, except the last one, which is cooked with fish from Lake Como. It can also be prepared with porcini mushrooms, rapini, or other vegetables or meats, such as small songbirds in the case of the Venetian and Lombard dish polenta e osei. In some areas of Veneto, it can be also made of white cornmeal (mais biancoperla, then called polenta bianca). In some areas of Piedmont, it can be also made of potatoes instead of cornmeal (polenta bianca as well).In the westernmost alpine region the maize is sometimes added with local grains, barley and rye (polente bâtarde or polente barbare ), and often frichâ, toasted on a loza (thin refractory stone).

 

The variety of cereal used is usually yellow maize, but buckwheat, white maize, or mixtures thereof may be used. Coarse grinds make a firm, coarse polenta; finer grinds make a creamy, soft polenta.[7]

 

Polenta takes a long time to cook, typically simmering in four to five times its volume of watery liquid for about 45 minutes with near-constant stirring, necessary for even gelatinization of the starch. Some alternative cooking techniques are meant to speed up the process, or not to require supervision. Quick-cooking (cooked, instant) polenta is widely used and can be prepared in a few minutes; it is considered inferior to polenta made from unprocessed cornmeal and best eaten baked or fried.[7]

 

In his book Heat, Bill Buford talks about his experiences as a line cook in Mario Batali's Italian restaurant Babbo. Buford details the differences in taste between instant polenta and slow-cooked polenta, and describes a method of preparation that takes up to three hours, but does not require constant stirring: "polenta, for most of its cooking, is left unattended.... If you don't have to stir it all the time, you can cook it for hours—what does it matter, as long as you're nearby?"[8] Cook's Illustrated magazine has described a method using a microwave oven that reduces cooking time to 12 minutes and requires only a single stirring to prepare 3 ½ cups of cooked polenta, and in March 2010 presented a stovetop, near-stir-less method, using a pinch of baking soda (adding alkali), which replicates the traditional effect.[9][10][11] Kyle Phillips suggested making it in a polenta maker or in a slow cooker.[12]

 

Cooked polenta can be shaped into balls, patties, or sticks, and then fried in oil, baked, or grilled until golden brown; fried polenta is called crostini di polenta or polenta fritta.

 

In popular culture[edit]

 

Polenta is a staple of Northern Italian cuisine (and, to a lesser extent, Central Italian one, e.g. Tuscany)[1] and its consumption is traditionally associated with lower classes, as in times past cornmeal mush was an essential food in their everyday nutrition.[13]

 

See also[edit]

Portal icon Food portal

Cornmeal

Grits

Farina (food)

Ga'at

Hasty pudding

List of maize dishes

List of porridges

Mămăligă

Mush

Nshima

Pap

Pudding corn

Sadza

Ugali

 

Notes[edit]

 

1.^  to: a b Righi Parenti, Giovanni (2003) [1995]. "Pisa, Lucca, Livorno". La cucina toscana [Tuscan cuisine] (in Italian). Rome: Newton & Compton. p. 384. ISBN 88-541-0141-9.

2. ^ Migliorini, Bruno; Tagliavini, Carlo; Fiorelli, Piero. Tommaso Francesco Borri, ed. "Dizionario italiano multimediale e multilingue d'ortografia e di pronunzia". dizionario.rai.it. Rai Eri. Retrieved 12 February 2016.

3. ^ Canepari, Luciano. "Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online". dipionline.it. Retrieved 12 February 2016.

4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 3rd edition, 2006, s.v.

5. ^ Dubreuil, P.; et al. (2006). "More On The Introduction of Temperate Maize into Europe: Large-Scale Bulk SSR Genotyping and New Historical Elements" (PDF). Maydica 51: 281–291.

6. ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-11-03). "Eat this! Polenta, a universal peasant food". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2011-05-18.

7.^  to: a b "Polenta - How to Cook Polenta". mangiabenepasta.com. Retrieved 28 September 2015.

8. ^ Buford, Bill (2006). Heat. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 150. ISBN 1-4000-4120-1.

9. ^ Kimball, Christopher; Yanagihara, Dawn (January 1998). "The Microwave Chronicles". Cook's Illustrated: 11.

10. ^ Kimball, Christopher (March 2010). "Creamy Parmesan Polenta". Cook's Illustrated.

11. ^ "CI creamy polenta". Chowhound. Retrieved 28 September 2015.

12. ^ Kyle Phillips. "Polenta: Making it at Home". Retrieved 28 January 2007.

13. ^ "La storia della polenta" [The history of polenta]. I primi d'Italia (in Italian). Retrieved 31 January 2016.

 

 

Smarties

 

This article is about the internationally distributed chocolate confectionery. For the confectionery distributed in the United States, see Smarties (tablet ). For other uses, see Smarties (disambiguation).

Smarties (chocolate)

Smarties_(choclate)

Smarties

Owner

Nestlé

Country

United Kingdom

Introduced

1937

Previous owners

Rowntree's

 

Website

www.smarties.co.uk

 

Smarties are a colour-varied sugar-coated chocolate confectionery popular primarily in the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Greece, the Nordic countries, South Africa, and the Middle East. They have been manufactured since 1937,[1] originally by H.I. Rowntree & Company in the UK. They are currently produced by Nestlé.

 

Smarties are oblate spheroids with a minor axis of about 5 mm (0.2 in) and a major axis of about 12 mm (0.5 in). They come in eight colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, mauve,[2] pink and brown, although the blue variety was temporarily replaced by a white variety in some countries, while an alternative natural colouring dye of the blue colour was being researched.

 

Smarties are not distributed in the United States, except by specialist importers. This is because the American rights to the brand belong to the Smarties  Company, which manufactures its own hard tablet sweet under the registered trademark name Smarties. (In Canada, these are sold using the brand name Rockets.)

 

 

 

Contents  [hide]

1 History

2 Colours

3 Variants

4 Advertising slogans 4.1 UK and Ireland

4.2 Canada

4.3 Germany

4.4 South Africa

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

 

 

History[edit]

 

Rowntrees of York, England, have been making "Chocolate Beans" since at least 1882. The product was renamed "Smarties Chocolate Beans" in 1937.[3] Rowntrees was forced to drop the words "chocolate beans" in 1937 due to trading standards requirements (the use of the word "beans" was felt to be misleading[citation needed]) so adopted the "Milk Chocolate in a Crisp Sugar Shell". Later, the sweet was rebranded as "Smarties".

 

Smarties in the UK were traditionally sold in cylindrical cardboard tubes, capped with a colourful plastic lid usually having a letter of the alphabet on it.[4] The purpose of this, according to a Rowntrees' spokesperson in the 1980s, was for them to be useful as a teaching aid to encourage young children to recognise the letters. Over the last 25 years, Nestlé and Rowntrees have manufactured five billion Smarties lids. Some lids are very rare and are now regarded as collectors' items.

 

In February 2004, the Smarties tube was replaced with a hexagonal design. The rationale behind changing the design was, according to Nestlé, to make the brand "fresh and appealing" to youngsters;[5] the new packaging is also lighter and more compact, and the lid (which is now a hinged piece of cardboard) has a card clip which holds the lid shut when it is folded over. The new lid still features a letter like the old plastic lids, but it is in the form of a "what [letter] is a [thing]?" question, the answer for which can be read when the lid is open, next to the hole giving access to the rest of the tube. The hexagonal box is made of one piece of card which is diecut then folded and glued. The hexagon can also be stacked in many layers without the pile collapsing, which is an advantage at the point of sale. The last 100 tubes to leave the factory in York had a certificate inside them.

 

Smarties are no longer manufactured in York; production has now moved to Germany,[6] where a third of them were already made. Outside Europe, Nestlé's largest production facility for Smarties is in Canada, where Nestlé has been manufacturing products since 1918.

 

In 1998, Nestle obtained a trademark for a tubular Smarties package. It later sued Master Foods in Denmark, which was marketing M&M minis in a similar package. The Supreme Court of Denmark ruled that a basic geometrical shape could not be trademarked and ordered the trademark to be removed from the trademark register.[7]

 

Colours[edit]

 

UK Nestlé Smarties, before (above) and immediately after (below) transition to natural colours. Current UK Smarties include a natural blue in place of white.

In one of the earlier ranges of colours there was a light-brown Smartie. This was replaced in 1988 by the blue Smartie. Before 1958, dark-brown Smarties had a plain-chocolate centre, while light-brown ones were coffee-flavoured. The orange Smarties contained, and still contain in the UK, orange-flavoured chocolate.[8]

 

In 2006 it was announced that Nestlé were removing all artificial colourings from Smarties in the United Kingdom, owing to consumer concerns about the effect of chemical dyes on children's health.[9] Nestlé decided to replace all synthetic dyes with natural ones, but, unable to source a natural blue dye, removed blue Smarties from circulation (which led to the common misbelief that blue Smarties triggered hyperactivity in some children) and replaced them with white ones.[10] White Smarties were replaced by blue Smarties in the United Kingdom in February 2008, using a natural blue dye derived from the cyanobacterium spirulina.[11]

 

Artificial colouring was removed from Smarties on the Canadian market in March 2009. The new range included all the colours except blue. Blue Smarties were re-added in May 2010.[12]

 

Red Smarties were previously dyed with cochineal, a derivative of the product made by extracting colour from female cochineal beetles. A pigment extracted from red cabbage is now used in the United Kingdom.[13][14]

 

Variants[edit]

 

UK blue Smarties, old (above) and new (below)

Smarties are also sold in the form of chocolate bars and eggs with fragments of Smarties in them, and chocolate-and-vanilla ice cream with Smarties pieces in it known as Smarties Fusion. A variant on Smarties ice cream is the Smarties McFlurry, sold by McDonald's. It was discontinued temporarily in 2012, brought back in early 2014 but withdrawn again in late 2015. A Smarties Blizzard is available at Dairy Queen in Canada.

 

In 1997, larger-sized Giant Smarties were introduced, and, in 2004, Fruity Smarties. Another variation of Smarties, which contained white chocolate rather than milk chocolate, was also introduced. These were trialled as "Smarctic Frost Bites", however upon their proper release a year or so later, they were simply called White Chocolate Smarties.

 

In 1998, a product known as "Smarties Secrets" was introduced which contained sweets of varying designs, colours and flavours. The packaging also contained a small comic book. This product is no longer available.

 

In Canada, there was a limited line of red and white Smarties where the white Smarties sport a red maple leaf, reminiscent of the Canadian flag. Holiday packaging for Halloween (sold as Scaries), Christmas and Valentine's Day (containing only pink and red Smarties) is common. Also in Canada, Nestlé has introduced Peanut and Peanut Butter Smarties.

 

Around Christmas, Nestlé Australia and Canada often releases Smarties in the Christmas colours of red, green and white.

 

In other countries, like Canada, there is more variety in packaging. Smarties can be purchased in rectangular boxes, a giant tube, or in a stand-up plastic bag, and in 410 g bags in Australia and New Zealand.

 

In the Czech Republic and in Slovakia, a similar product called Lentilky is manufactured by Nestlé. Lentilky in the Czech Republic have been produced by Sfinx Holešov since 1907, though not originally under this name.[15] This name is also used in some Latin American countries (e.g., Lentejas in Peru).[16]

 

In the United States a Smarties variant was introduced by Nestlé for a limited time as part of a product promotion for Disney's animation feature "Tarzan" in 1999. "Tarzan Treats" featured red, green, brown, blue, orange and yellow Smarties pieces. Yellow pieces contained an outline graphic of characters featured in the film. This Smarties variant was made in Canada for distribution in the United States.

 

Advertising slogans[edit]

 

UK and Ireland[edit]

 

The current Smarties slogan is "Only Smarties have the answer", which has been used since the late 1970s; however, the previous slogan, "Do you eat the red ones last?", is still occasionally used.

 

In the 1950s and 1960s, the phrase "Buy some for Lulu" was sung school-yard style (in the fashion of nyah-nah-nah nah-nah) as a tagline in commercials. In the end of the commercial, a boy/girl (usually a teacher or cowboy etc.) says the phrase and walks off, leaving the Rowntree text and the Smartie packaging on the screen for five seconds. This was before the rise of the singer Lulu.

 

Mid-1980s television commercials were notable for their advanced use of computer-generated imagery, produced by Martin Lambie-Nairn.

 

Canada[edit]

 

The words for the Canadian advertising jingle from the 1970s until the mid-1990s were "When you eat your Smarties, do you eat the red ones last? Do you suck them very slowly, or crunch them very fast? Eat those -coated chocolates, but tell me when I ask, when you eat your Smarties, do you eat the red ones last?". This jingle was set to the tune of Lonnie Donegan's "Does Your Chewing Gum Lose Its Flavour (On the Bedpost Overnight?)".

 

The 2008 advertising campaign showed various people singing "Everyday People" by Sly and the Family Stone.[17]

 

As of 2013, the slogan is "Show 'your' colours!"

 

Germany[edit]

 

The German Smarties slogan is "Viele, viele bunte Smarties" (which translates as "lots and lots of colourful Smarties").

 

South Africa[edit]

South Africa Nestlé Smarties, with the "wotalotigot" slogan on the side

In South Africa the slogan is "Wot a lot I got" ("What a lot I've got"). This is often printed on one of the sides of the Smarties box in brown lettering simply as a single word, "Wotalotigot".

 

See also[edit]

Nestlé Smarties Book Prize

Galaxy Minstrels

Reese's Pieces

Smarties: Meltdown

Skittles

M&M's

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ "Smarties (chocolate)". Nestlé. Retrieved 25 July 2012.

2. ^ "Smarties. History and the Facts page 2". Smartiescollector.com. Retrieved 10 April 2014.

3. ^ Bradley, John (2011). Cadbury's Purple Reign: The Story Behind Chocolate's Best-Loved Brand. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-99505-0.

4. ^ Paula Cocozza "The Argos catalogue – and other small losses that hit us harder than expected", theguardian.com (Shortcutsblog), 24 October 2013

5. ^ "Smarties set to lose their tube", BBC News, 18 February 2005

6. ^ "Smarties production to move to Germany (From The Northern Echo)". Thenorthernecho.co.uk. 21 October 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2014.

7. ^ Marstrand-Jørgensen, Mads (20 October 2003). "Nestlé Outsmarted in Smarties Ruling". Globe Business Publishing Ltd. Retrieved 28 August 2014.

8. ^ Ben Schott, Schott's Food & Drink Miscellany

9. ^ "Why blue smarties are turning white". The Daily Mail. 8 May 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011.

10. ^ Smithers, Rebecca (11 February 2008). "Smarties manufacturer brings back the blues". London: Guardian. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

11. ^ "Seaweed allows Smarties comeback". BBC News. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

12. ^ "Nestlé : SMARTIES No Artificial Colours". Nestle.ca. 1 June 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

13. ^ Barton, Laura (15 May 2007). "Veggies beware!". London: Lifeandhealth.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

14. ^ "Vegetarians see red over smarties dye". Manchester Evening News. 28 October 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

15. ^ iDnes.cz. "Zlínsko: Baťovy boty i lentilky".

16. ^ Nestlé. "Lentejas".

17. ^ Everyday People on YouTube

 

Bubble gum

 

For other uses, see Bubblegum (disambiguation).

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Bubble gum

Blowing bubble gum.jpg

A woman blowing a bubble with bubble gum.

Type

Chewing gum

Creator

Walter E. Diemer

cookbook: Bubble gum   Media: Bubble gum

bubble gum is a type of chewing gum, designed to freshen breath and to be inflated out of the mouth as a bubble.

 

Contents  [hide]

1 History

2 Decline in popularity

3 Flavors

4 Records

5 See also

6 References

 

 

History[edit]

 

In 1928, Walter E. Diemer, an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia, was experimenting with new gum recipes. One recipe was found to be less sticky than regular chewing gum, and stretched more easily. This gum became highly successful and was eventually named by the president of Fleer as Dubble Bubble because of its stretchy texture. The original bubble gum was pink in color because that was the only dye Diemer had on hand at the time and it was his favorite color.

 

In modern chewing gum, if natural rubber such as chicle is used, it must pass several purity and cleanliness tests. However, most modern types of chewing gum use synthetic gum based materials. These materials allow for longer-lasting flavor, a better texture, and a reduction in tackiness.[1]

 

Decline in popularity[edit]

Chewing gum was widely popular from the mid 20th century until a peak in 2009, after which sales began to decline. During the period between 2009 and 2013 sales of chewing gum fell 11 percent.[2] Reasons for chewing gum's decline in popularity included alternative products for breath freshening, the perception of gum as a "messy" product, and less successful marketing efforts by chewing gum companies[citation needed].

 

Flavors[edit]

 

Various colours of bubblegum balls

Bubble gum is available in many colors and flavors. Although the exact ingredients were kept a mystery to customers, chemicals such as ethyl methylphenylglycidate, isoamyl acetate, fruit extracts, and more give it its sweet flavor.[3] When blended, the chemicals and extracts fuse to make a sweet, palatable flavor. Gums made with vanilla, coconut, peppermint, and almond extracts are available.

 

Flavors include blue raspberry, lemon, strawberry, apple, cherry, watermelon, cinnamon, banana, peppermint, cotton , and grape of which strawberry and banana can be achieved with ethyl methylphenylglycidate and isoamyl acetate limonene, respectively. Malic acid can be used for apple flavor, allyl hexanoate for pineapple, ethyl propionate for fruit punch, cinnamic aldehyde for cinnamon and acetophenone for cherry. More unusual flavors such as berry, cola, lemon lime, peach, tropical fruit, pineapple, orange, or fruit punch can also be found, as well as novelty tastes such as bacon or popcorn.

 

In taste tests, children tend to prefer strawberry and blue raspberry flavors, rejecting more complex flavors as they say these make them want to swallow the gum rather than continue chewing.[4]

 

Records[edit]

 

In 1996, Susan Montgomery Williams of Fresno, California set the Guinness World Record for largest bubblegum bubble ever blown, which was 26 inches (66 cm) in diameter. Chad Fell holds the record for "Largest Hands-free Bubblegum Bubble" at 20 inches (51 cm), achieved on 24 April 2004.[5]

 

See also[edit]

Blibber-Blubber

Functional gum

Gum base

Gum industry

Inca Kola

List of chewing gum brands

 

References[edit]

 

1. ^ "TLC Cooking "What is chewing gum made of?"". Recipes.howstuffworks.com. 2000-04-01. Retrieved 2012-11-15.

2. ^ "Chew on this: Gum loses its pop". The Big Story.

3. ^ "What was chewing gum originally made from?". http://www.madehow.com/. 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2014-03-31. External link in |publisher= (help)

4. ^ McGrath, Susan. "Stuck On Bubble Gum". National Geographic World 277. Readers' Guide Full Text Mega (H.W. Wilson). 

5. ^ "Largest Bubblegum Bubble Blown". Guinness Book of World Records. Retrieved 2 November 2011.